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JEAN PIAGET <br /> <b>Warning</b>: include(/includes/insert0.txt): failed to open stream: No such file or directory in <b>/home/bmserver/public_html/personality/piaget.php</b> on line <b>11</b><br /> <br /> <b>Warning</b>: include(): Failed opening '/includes/insert0.txt' for inclusion (include_path='.:/usr/lib/php:/usr/local/lib/php') in <b>/home/bmserver/public_html/personality/piaget.php</b> on line <b>11</b><br /> <META NAME="keywords" CONTENT="mind-brain, personality theory, personality theories, personal, mind, brain, neuroscience, consciousness, poetry, music, sound, personal pics"> <META NAME="description" CONTENT="a site by Shawn Mikula"> <br /> <b>Warning</b>: include(/includes/insert1.txt): failed to open stream: No such file or directory in <b>/home/bmserver/public_html/personality/piaget.php</b> on line <b>24</b><br /> <br /> <b>Warning</b>: include(): Failed opening '/includes/insert1.txt' for inclusion (include_path='.:/usr/lib/php:/usr/local/lib/php') in <b>/home/bmserver/public_html/personality/piaget.php</b> on line <b>24</b><br /> Jean Piaget (1896 - 1980) <br /> <b>Warning</b>: include(/includes/insert2.txt): failed to open stream: No such file or directory in <b>/home/bmserver/public_html/personality/piaget.php</b> on line <b>34</b><br /> <br /> <b>Warning</b>: include(): Failed opening '/includes/insert2.txt' for inclusion (include_path='.:/usr/lib/php:/usr/local/lib/php') in <b>/home/bmserver/public_html/personality/piaget.php</b> on line <b>34</b><br /> <br /> <b>Warning</b>: include(/includes/insert_personality.txt): failed to open stream: No such file or directory in <b>/home/bmserver/public_html/personality/piaget.php</b> on line <b>37</b><br /> <br /> <b>Warning</b>: include(): Failed opening '/includes/insert_personality.txt' for inclusion (include_path='.:/usr/lib/php:/usr/local/lib/php') in <b>/home/bmserver/public_html/personality/piaget.php</b> on line <b>37</b><br /> <br> <!-- <p> </p> --> <P style="TEXT-ALIGN: left"> <SPAN style="COLOR: rgb(0,0,0)"> <center> <br><hr width=50%><font face=Times><big> Jean Piaget (1896 - 1980) </big></font><br><hr width=50%><br><br></center> <center><b>Biography</b></center> <p><img SRC="piaget.gif" HSPACE=10 VSPACE=2 BORDER=0 height=241 width=175 align=LEFT>Jean Piaget was born in Neuchâtel (Switzerland) on August 9, 1896. He died in Geneva on September 16, 1980. He was the oldest child of Arthur Piaget, professor of medieval literature at the University, and of Rebecca Jackson. After high school graduation, he studied natural sciences at the University of Neuchâtel where he obtained a Ph.D. During this period, he published two philosophical essays which he considered as "adolescence work" but were important for the general orientation of his thinking. After a semester spent at the University of Zürich where he developed an interest for psychoanalysis, he left Switzerland for France. He spent one year working at the Ecole de la rue de la Grange-aux-Belles a boys' institution created by Alfred Binet and then directed by De Simon who had developed with Binet a test for the measurement of intelligence. There, he standardized Burt's test of intelligence and did his first experimental studies of the growing mind. In 1921, he became director of studies at the J.-J. Rousseau Institute in Geneva <p>In 1923, he married one of his student coworkers, Valentine Châtenay.  The couple had three children, Jacqueline, Lucienne and Laurent whose intellectual development from infancy to language was studied by Piaget. <p>Successively or simultaneously, Piaget occupied several chairs: psychology, sociology and history of science at Neuchâtel from 1925 to 1929; history of scientific thinking at Geneva from 1929 to 1939; the International Bureau of Education from 1929 to 1967; psychology and sociology at Lausanne from 1938 to 1951; sociology at Geneva from 1939 to 1952, then genetic and experimental psychology from 1940 to 1971. He was, reportedly, the only Swiss to be invited at the Sorbonne from 1952 to 1963. In 1955, he created and directed until his death the International Center for Genetic Epistemology. By the end of his career, he had written over 60 books and many hundreds of articles.  He died in Geneva, September 16, 1980, one of the most significant psychologists of the twentieth century. <p> <hr WIDTH="100%"> <center><b>Theory</b></center> <p>Over a period of six decades, Jean Piaget conducted a program of naturalistic research that has profoundly affected our understanding of child development. Piaget called his general theoretical framework "genetic epistemology" because he was primarily interested in how knowledge developed in human organisms. Piaget had a background in both Biology and Philosophy and concepts from both these disciplines influences his theories and research of child development. <p>The concept of cognitive structure is central to his theory. Cognitive structures (i.e. Schemas) are patterns of physical or mental action that underlie specific acts of intelligence and correspond to stages of child development. There are four primary cognitive structures (i.e., development stages) according to Piaget: sensorimotor, preoperations, concrete operations, and formal operations. In the sensorimotor stage (0-2 years), intelligence takes the form of motor actions. Intelligence in the preoperation period (3-7 years) is intutive in nature. The cognitive structure during the concrete operational stage (8-11 years) is logical but depends upon concrete referents. In the final stage of formal operations (12-15 years), thinking involves abstractions. <p>Cognitive structures change through the processes of adaptation: assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation involves the interpretation of events in terms of existing cognitive structure whereas accommodation refers to changing the cognitive structure to make sense of the environment. Cognitive development consists of a constant effort to adapt to the environment in terms of assimilation and accommodation. In this sense, Piaget's theory is similar in nature to other constructivist perspectives of learning (e.g., Bruner, Vygotsky). <p>While the stages of cognitive development identified by Piaget are associated with characteristic age spans, they vary for every individual. Furthermore, each stage has many detailed structural forms. For example, the concrete operational period has more than forty distinct structures covering classification and relations, spatial relationships, time, movement, chance, number, conservation and measurement. Similar detailed analysis of intellectual functions is provided by theories of intelligence such as Guilford, Gardner, and Sternberg. <br><br> <br><br> <br /> <b>Warning</b>: include(/includes/insert3.txt): failed to open stream: No such file or directory in <b>/home/bmserver/public_html/personality/piaget.php</b> on line <b>116</b><br /> <br /> <b>Warning</b>: include(): Failed opening '/includes/insert3.txt' for inclusion (include_path='.:/usr/lib/php:/usr/local/lib/php') in <b>/home/bmserver/public_html/personality/piaget.php</b> on line <b>116</b><br /> </BODY></HTML>