Warning: include(/includes/insert0_pre.txt): failed to open stream: No such file or directory in /home/bmserver/public_html/personality/adler.php on line 3

Warning: include(): Failed opening '/includes/insert0_pre.txt' for inclusion (include_path='.:/usr/lib/php:/usr/local/lib/php') in /home/bmserver/public_html/personality/adler.php on line 3
ALFRED ADLER <br /> <b>Warning</b>: include(/includes/insert0.txt): failed to open stream: No such file or directory in <b>/home/bmserver/public_html/personality/adler.php</b> on line <b>11</b><br /> <br /> <b>Warning</b>: include(): Failed opening '/includes/insert0.txt' for inclusion (include_path='.:/usr/lib/php:/usr/local/lib/php') in <b>/home/bmserver/public_html/personality/adler.php</b> on line <b>11</b><br /> <META NAME="keywords" CONTENT="mind-brain, personality theory, personality theories, personal, mind, brain, neuroscience, consciousness, poetry, music, sound, personal pics"> <META NAME="description" CONTENT="a site by Shawn Mikula"> <br /> <b>Warning</b>: include(/includes/insert1.txt): failed to open stream: No such file or directory in <b>/home/bmserver/public_html/personality/adler.php</b> on line <b>24</b><br /> <br /> <b>Warning</b>: include(): Failed opening '/includes/insert1.txt' for inclusion (include_path='.:/usr/lib/php:/usr/local/lib/php') in <b>/home/bmserver/public_html/personality/adler.php</b> on line <b>24</b><br /> Alfred Adler (1870 - 1937) <br /> <b>Warning</b>: include(/includes/insert2.txt): failed to open stream: No such file or directory in <b>/home/bmserver/public_html/personality/adler.php</b> on line <b>34</b><br /> <br /> <b>Warning</b>: include(): Failed opening '/includes/insert2.txt' for inclusion (include_path='.:/usr/lib/php:/usr/local/lib/php') in <b>/home/bmserver/public_html/personality/adler.php</b> on line <b>34</b><br /> <br /> <b>Warning</b>: include(/includes/insert_personality.txt): failed to open stream: No such file or directory in <b>/home/bmserver/public_html/personality/adler.php</b> on line <b>37</b><br /> <br /> <b>Warning</b>: include(): Failed opening '/includes/insert_personality.txt' for inclusion (include_path='.:/usr/lib/php:/usr/local/lib/php') in <b>/home/bmserver/public_html/personality/adler.php</b> on line <b>37</b><br /> <br> <!-- <p> </p> --> <P style="TEXT-ALIGN: left"> <SPAN style="COLOR: rgb(0,0,0)"> <center> <br><hr width=50%><font face=Times><big> Alfred Adler (1870 - 1937) </big></font><br><hr width=50%><br><br></center> <center> <p><b>Biography</b></center> <p> Alfred Adler was born in Vienna, Austria on February 7, 1870. During the early decades of this century he originated the ideas which, to a large extent, have been incorporated in the mainstream of present-day theory and practice of psychology and psychopathology. <p> <img SRC="adler.jpg" HSPACE=10 VSPACE=2 BORDER=0 height=141 width=124 align=RIGHT> The second of six children, Adler spent his childhood in the suburbs of Vienna. He remembered that when he was about 5 years old, gravely ill with pneumonia, the physician told his father that he doubted the child would recover. It was at that time that Alfred decided he wanted to become a doctor so that he might be able to fight deadly diseases. He never changed his mind, and in 1895 he acquired his M.D. degree at the University of Vienna. <p> He was very close to his father and remembered his repeatedly saying to him during their walks through the Vienna woods, "Alfred, do not believe anything." When one realizes how in later life Adler always challenged statements unless he felt they could be accepted without reasonable doubt, his vivid recollection of this somewhat unusual admonition of his father is understandable. Another childhood recollection that stood out in his memory, and which he liked to tell to children having difficulty with their school work, recalled an occasion when a teacher had suggested that his father take Alfred out of school and apprentice him to a cobbler, since he never would graduate anyway. His father only scoffed at the teacher and expressed his disapproval of him to his son. At the time Alfred, having lost interest in school, had failed in mathematics. He now decided to show the teacher what he could do: in a short time he became first in his class in mathematics and never again experienced any difficulties in his studies. <p> In 1898, at age 28, Adler wrote his first book, which deals with the health conditions of tailors. In it he sets forth what later was to become one of the main tenets of his school of thought: the necessity of looking at man as a whole, as a functioning entity, reacting to his environment as well as to his physical endowment, rather than as a summation of instincts, drives and other psychologic manifestations. <p> In 1902, when Adler was one of the few who reacted favorably to his book on dream interpretations, Freud sent him a hand-written postcard suggesting he join the circle which met weekly in Freud's home to discuss newer aspects of psychopathology. At that time Adler had already started collecting material on patients with physical handicaps, studying both their organic and psychologic reactions to them. Only when Freud had assured him that in his circle a variety of views, including Adler's, would be discussed did Adler accept the invitation. <p> Five years later, in 1907, Adler published his book on organ inferiority and its compensation. From then on, the difference between Freud's and Adler's views became steadily more marked. Adler had never accepted Freud's original theories that mental difficulties were caused exclusively by a sexual trauma, and he opposed the generalizations when dreams were interpreted, in each instance, as sexual wish fulfillment. After prolonged discussions, during which each of the two men tried to win the other over to his point of view--attempts doomed to failure from the start-- Adler left Freud's circle in 1911 with a group of eight colleagues and formed his own school. After that, Freud and Adler never met again. <p> In 1912 Adler published his book, <I>The Neurotic Constitution</I>, in which he further developed his main concepts. He called his psychologic system "Individual Psychology," a term which is sometimes misunderstood. It refers to the indivisibility of the personality in its psychologic structure. His next book, <I>Understanding Human Nature</I>, which comprises lectures given at the Viennese Institute for Adult Education, is still on the required-reading list of some American high schools. <p> After returning from war duty in 1918, Adler founded several child guidance clinics in Vienna. These were soon visited by professionals from abroad, stimulating the development of similar clinics in other countries. <p> In 1926 Adler was invited to lecture at Columbia University, and from 1932 on he held the first chair of Visiting Professor of Medical Psychology at Long Island College of Medicine. During these and the following years he spent only the summer months, from May to October, in Vienna, and the academic year lecturing in the States. His family joined him there in 1935. <p> Adler's lectures were overcrowded from the beginning, and he communicated as easily with his audiences in English as he did when using his native German tongue. He was in Aberdeen, Scotland, to deliver a series of lectures at the University when, on May 28, 1937, he suddenly collapsed while walking in the street and died from heart failure within a few minutes. <p> <hr WIDTH="100%"> <center> <p><b>Theory</b></center> <p>Alfred Adler postulates a single "drive" or "Striving for Superiority" behind all our behavior and experience. According to Adler, "We all wish to overcome difficulties. We all strive to reach a goal by the attainment of which we shall feel strong, superior, and complete." This wish and this striving relate to what Adler believed to be people's main goal in life: striving for superiority (over one's current condition and life's challenges.) In other words, Adler believed that self-improvement is the driving force in humans. For example, children observe more competent elders around them and this motivates them to acquire new skills and develop new talents (Weiten, 1992, p. 484). Additionally, Adler postulated that, beyond general improvement, each person has an ideal image they are trying to achieve, but the image is never fully comprehended in consciousness. This image of the perfect self is called the fictional finalism (Elverud, 1997). <p>While Freud and Jung envisioned conflicting components of the psyche, Adler felt that the conscious and unconscious worked together to achieve the goals of self-improvement and fictional finalism. But, he also observed that each person worked towards these goals in their own way; they have a unique style of life, which includes a unique pattern of thinking, feeling, emotion, and behavior. Adler categorized these unique styles of life into four types: ruling, getting, avoiding, socially useful. The characteristics of these types are summarized as: <br> 1) Ruling - seek to control others, competitive, bragging, belittling <br> 2) Getting - dependent on others, passive, lazy <br> 3) Avoiding - avoid problems and defeat, cold, isolated <br> 4) Socially Useful - social conscience, proactive approach to life, sense of belonging, acceptance of discomfort <br> <p>Similar to Freud and Jung, Adler believed parenting and childhood development played a large role in the shaping of a personality. From parental over-pampering, a child may become spoiled and fail to find satisfying love in adulthood. From parental neglect, a child may lack confidence in his ability to complete tasks and attract love from others. Additionally, Adler recognized that position in birth order could affect a child's development. The first-born child may act out and misbehave, because he wants to regain attention lost to subsequent children; or alternatively, he may accept authority and conservative values. A second-born child may become competitive from the perceived need to catch up with the first-born. The youngest child may fail to become independent, while accumulating an exaggerated view of their self-worth due to over-pampering. <p>A frequent problem that Adler noticed was an inferiority complex. Everyone feels inferior to a degree, which motivates us to get better, but some people feel inferior to an extreme. Parental neglect is a common cause of this mindset. People might cope with an inferiority complex by becoming tentative, helpless, and lazy, or by engaging in behavior, called overcompensation. Overcompensation involves trying to hide one's sense of inferiority from others and even from oneself. People who overcompensate might be vocal about their successes and qualities and exaggerate them. Also, they tend to get wrapped up in status, power, and materialism. They believe all of these things give the appearance of superiority (Weiten, 1992, p. 484). <br><br> <br><br> <br /> <b>Warning</b>: include(/includes/insert3.txt): failed to open stream: No such file or directory in <b>/home/bmserver/public_html/personality/adler.php</b> on line <b>219</b><br /> <br /> <b>Warning</b>: include(): Failed opening '/includes/insert3.txt' for inclusion (include_path='.:/usr/lib/php:/usr/local/lib/php') in <b>/home/bmserver/public_html/personality/adler.php</b> on line <b>219</b><br /> </BODY></HTML>