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> The Human Singularity, Beyond Transhumanism
Robert the Bruce
post Jul 19, 2004, 03:21 AM
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The Vingean Singularity http://www.bbc.co.uk/h2g2/guide/A569522
There are scientists who say that technological progress will accelerate indefinitely, causing a mind-boggling change in the basic principles of what we humans affectionately call 'home'. It is a well-known fact among Singularitarians that this event, known as the Singularity1, will occur sometime before the year 2100. Some attribute this hypothetical event to Vernor Vinge and claim that it is first mentioned in his sci-fi novel True Names and Other Dangers as one of the author's answers to a very interesting question; what would happen if the human race created an artificial intelligence which is more intelligent than its creators? A character in the book finds himself 'precipitated over an abyss' when trying to predict future technology by extrapolating current trends. Vinge feels that when humans create an intelligence greater than their own, 'human history will have reached a kind of singularity'.

Although the Singularity is sometimes referred to as the brainchild of Vinge, it was briefly mentioned in the 1950s by John von Neumann, as Raymond Kurzweil points out in his excellent book précis The Singularity is Near. John von Neumann observed that...

... the ever accelerating progress of technology... gives the appearance of approaching some essential singularity in the history of the race beyond which human affairs, as we know them, could not continue.
A Brief Explanation

Imagine a curve that represents the technological progress of human beings throughout history. Most people would agree that we have come a long way in only a century; we've invented new technology, learned new things and developed as a race. Thus the curve slopes upward.

We can examine this curve and extrapolate to create a function that describes the level of progress for any given point in time. Many have done this, including Ray Kurzweil, the renowned inventor of synthesisers and text-to-speech machines and also author of The Age of Intelligent Machines, a book that won the Association of American Publishers' Award for the Most Outstanding Computer Science Book of 1990. Kurzweil has shown that the doubling period of the speed of computers is diminishing, ie it used to take us three years to double the speed and memory capacity of computers in the beginning of the 20th Century, and now the same kind of progress is achieved in only one year. He claims that these trends will continue, and that computers will be able to emulate human brains in the year 2020.

When and if computers become intelligent, computers themselves could construct new computers, causing a massive acceleration in technological progress. One way to visualise this acceleration is to consider the following rather trivial function.

f(t) = -1 / t
Readers with working knowledge of mathematics can see that this function gives us very large values for very small negative values of t. As t approaches zero (from the negative side), the value of the function approaches infinity. This is called hyperbolic growth. A hyperbolic function grows much faster than an exponential function, as the reader can easily see in the following table. Note that t takes on negative values; think of it as a countdown to the Singularity.

Exponential versus Hyperbolic

Time (t) Exponential (2t+1) Hyperbolic (-1/t)
-2.0 0.5 0.5
-1.5 0.7 0.67
-1.0 1 1
-0.5 1.41 2
-0.01 1.986 100
-0.000001 2 (approx.) one million
0 2 undefined

Given only a few points from a curve, there are several ways to extrapolate. In addition to comparing the growth of different functions, the graph below shows that the seemingly hyperbolic growth could in fact be exponential or even sigmoidal. This is discussed below.






Exponential functions have well-defined outputs for all inputs, as opposed to our hyperbolic function f(t). At the t-value of zero, the function is undefined (since division by zero is undefined). This is a mathematical singularity, corresponding to the Singularity. If we extend the analogy a bit, negative values of t represent the time before the Singularity.

The term 'singularity' can be interpreted either literally or figuratively. If we interpret the Singularity literally, it would mean that we'll make nearly infinite progress (whatever that means) in finite time, which is a rather absurd notion that is impossible to fully grasp. According to Vinge, 'new models must be applied' for humans to have the slightest chance of understanding what's going on.

The figurative interpretation of the concept of infinite progress is not only more believable but also much easier to visualise. It is presented in the book Can We Avoid a Third World War around 2010? by Peter Peeters. The author has extrapolated and found the hyperbolic growth mentioned above, but uses this method strictly to attract attention to possible crisis points. He claims that this method can predict points in time where there's a change so fundamental as to be called 'the end of the world as we know it' by pessimists, and has shown that his claims have some validity by showing that some historical crises, such as the First World War, coincide with his analytical crisis points. It should be noted, however, that the Second World War did not fit the model.

Thus, the conservative view of the Singularity is that it is a point of change or crisis. Another way of putting it is that the trends are all there, but the significance and results of these trends are still being discussed.

Paths to the Singularity

The Singularity can be reached in a number of different ways. Here are some examples.

Neurohacking - In this scenario, humans learn how to improve the brain either purely biologically or by introducing some kind of technology in the human brain - ie cybernetics. This ties in a bit with transhumanism, and the resulting positive feedback loop is what gives rise to the Singularity.

Self-enhancing computers - Most people who know a bit about computers know about Moore's Law. However, what would happen if we create an artificial intelligence (AI) that is just as smart as us and let it construct new computers? It's like a textbook example of positive feedback loops. At first, there would be no difference; processing power would double in another 18 months. After that, since the AI is working faster, processing power would double in nine months2, 4.5 months, and so on, and hey presto! We've reached the Singularity.

Uploading - Instead of creating intelligent software the hard way by writing all the code, why not just tap into the software already in our own heads? Some claim that it is theoretically possible to emulate a human brain (using so called 'whole brain emulation'), and that it will be possible to upload a person's mind into a computer. That would create a sentient computer program that can enhance its own code, causing the positive feedback loop that in turn causes the Singularity.

Nanotechnology - It is already possible to construct extremely small engines at the molecular level. This is called nanotechnology, and is often closely associated with so called 'nanobots', hypothetical robots that measure only a few nanometers across. Theoretically, nanotech could be used for neurohacking, to create an intelligent computer, or for whole brain emulation. A good source of information for the aspiring nanotechie is the Foresight Institute, a 'non-profit educational organisation formed to help prepare society for anticipated advanced technologies'. Another important nanotech website is that of Zyvex, the first molecular nanotechnology company.

Singularitarians

Although most of this sounds like pure science fiction, it is like most sci-fi slowly becoming science. Some people claim that it is perfectly logical to expect the Singularity to occur no later than the year 2010, if we work hard enough. These are of course Singularitarians. Note that the Singularitarians are not really an organised community; it's more a term for people that are actively working towards the Singularity. Examples of attempts at making an organised effort to reach the Singularity follow.

Among the people working towards the Singularity are the Singularity Institute, who feel that we don't have much time before research on nanotechnology is completed. They often cite the 'grey goo problem'3, and claim that to avoid a global catastrophe, we need to reach the Singularity caused by a self-enhancing AI4.

The person who seems to be the most motivated agent of the Singularity is of course also a founder of the Singularity Institute. His name is Eliezer Yudkowsky, and his website, The Low Beyond, is a vast source of information pertaining to the Singularity.

John Smart, a private teacher from Los Angeles, has a relatively conservative attitude towards the Singularity. He is making people aware of the Singularity through his website Singularity Watch, a source of carefully developed writing on the subject at an introductory and multidisciplinary level. According to the website, a 'singularity watcher' is 'neither absolutely convinced - nor uncritically happy - that the singularity is going to happen, but they do believe this issue deserves serious scientific investigation'. Due to his more conservative approach, Smart doesn't capitalise 'Singularity'.

The proposed society called the Singularity Club has an attitude towards the Singularity that is diametrically opposite Smart's. It is a more radical and controversial movement that claims that 'one must have the desire to not only survive the Singularity, but to ride its powerful wave right to Ascension (godhood). To, in effect, become the Singularity.'

Conclusion

It is important to stress that these are all speculations, conjectures and theories. Like all theories, the Singularity is subject to debate. Many point to the laws of physics; an infinitely fast computer-making computer would probably generate so much heat that it would incinerate the planet. Others point out that positive feedback can only take us so far, and that growth grinds to a halt after a certain threshold, much more resembling a sigmoidal curve than a hyperbolic curve. An example of growth like this is when a microphone is held up to a loudspeaker playing back the microphone signal, the loudspeaker becomes louder and louder, but not indefinitely. There are several built-in limitations to the system.

There is no real evidence that the Singularity will occur, simply because it hasn't occurred yet. Just like it's impossible to make a 100% accurate weather forecast, it's impossible to know if a certain event will ever come to pass. The reason that it does seem as if we might reach the Singularity is that there are many ways to reach it and many current trends point in that direction.

Many information theorists, evolution theorists and computer scientists come to the same conclusion; we will reach the Singularity, whatever it may be, in one way or another.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1 In this entry, the capitalised term 'Singularity' refers to the technological singularity predicted by Vinge, Kurzweil et al. The term 'singularity' (lower case 's') refers to singularities in general, such as mathematical singularities and the centre of a black hole.
2 Remember, this is still equivalent to 18 months' of work for human researchers, but the artificial intelligence is working in double-speed.
3 What might happen if one were to construct nanotech weapons that could disassemble the entire Earth atom by atom in a single week? Read about the 'grey goo problem' in chapter 11 of K Eric Drexler's Engines of Creation.
4 Some, however, feel that the prospect of the human race being relegated to second place by AIs is a lot more worrying than politicians gaining another weapon of mass destruction - after all, we already have the nuke. The 'active shield' concept (chapter 11 of K Eric Drexler's Engines of Creation) of nanotech offers some kind of safeguards - whereas super-AIs would, by their nature, get round any safeguards we put up.
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Robert the Bruce
post Jul 19, 2004, 03:45 AM
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THE HUMAN SINGULARITY AND MESMERISM:


“There are scientists who say that technological progress will accelerate indefinitely, causing a mind-boggling change in the basic principles of what we humans affectionately call 'home'. It is a well-known fact among Singularitarians that this event, known as the Singularity, will occur sometime before the year 2100.” (1)


I have yet to see a scientist talk about the impact of time viewing in any article. It will ensure the continuing exponential growth in knowledge. I think it is quite possible that this has been part of what has unleashed Pandora’s Box already and it is a far better explanation for many things that the UFOlogists are talking about. There have been a number of recent Popes who say that aliens will come to teach us in this century and there is a scientist/priest who supposedly developed a chronovisor. The combination of already developing technology in Holography, nanotechnology, and quantum teleporting may make it possible to travel to various potential futures with intelligent machines that include the human brain contents which were dumped onto a computer by Stanford in 1999.


How does this all too mystical reality work? For many years as we were growing up in the 50s and 60s the anti-mysticism forces denied there was ANY validity to mesmerism or hypnotism. They said there was no medicinal benefit to electricity and magnetism as well. Now they are using these techniques and acting as if they understand how they work. Col. Bearden has actually made the explanations of electricity that allow us to finally replicate many wave and particle components of these force and non-force elements that paranormal events are happening through. The prevailing paradigm is using the knowledge in ways that we have expressed major concern about in respect of mind control equipment.


What exactly the brain does and how the Thalami act as crystal radio receivers and amplifiers is an area of major interest in many scientific disciplines; but the halls of academia are still operating as if what was taught thirty years ago has validity. We are about to quote from a book authored by two seminar leaders on hypnosis to give a feel for what people have done to understand the brain and the mind for many millennia and probably millions of years. They correctly identify the whole field as trance combined with communication. All communication is a form of hypnosis from a certain point of view. Personally you may have met someone who has a mesmerizing voice or one that makes you relax. As a salesperson it was important for me to recognize the different kinds of voice and how the expression of what ever I wanted to say was just a part of what communicated. In the area of love-making and seduction the Romance languages seem most suitable but in reality English and voice modulation is just as good. They have a sub-title to their book that helps throw the net around the scope of the field - "Neuro-Linguistic Programming and the Structure of Hypnosis". If you think about it you'll see that our entire environment is programming us at all times.


"Hypnosis is a word that usually gets strong responses from people - some positive and some negative. Some people think it's a hoax or only good for making people act like chickens, some people think is will cure everything from dandruff to flat feet, and others think it is so dangerous that it should be left alone completely. Trance experiences have existed in different forms for centuries, usually surrounded by a mystique of something 'magical' and unexplainable. What is unique about this book is that it turns the 'magic' of hypnosis into specific understandable procedures that can be used not only in doing 'hypnosis' but also in everyday communication.


When John Grinder and Richard Bandler do a seminar on hypnosis together, one of them usually says ‘All communication is hypnosis' and the other says 'I disagree, nothing is hypnosis; hypnosis doesn't exist.' There is a sense in which they are both right, and both are saying the same thing." (2)


They cover many techniques including touch and squeezing a person on their shoulder. The psychic body has many points that are directly related to the chakra and acupuncture charts. The act of massage and the soothing voice of a trained therapist can function to access the brain and beyond that it can access things the person often can't do for themself. I believe the trained healers who work miracles often use the delta brainwave state of their patient to send their energy through. We are fortunate to not have to go through the same kinds of inquisitional trials that Mesmer and his predecessors went through and even more fortunate that there are books like this and detailed 'how-to' books on Yoga like the Yogic Society of Chicago put out at the beginning of the 20th century. We have no real excuse for not becoming truly educated and aware except that we lost the joy of learning when we were in school being bored to a state of hypnotic disinterest.
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Rick
post Oct 06, 2004, 11:12 AM
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The Vingean Singularity discusses hyperbolic, exponential, and sigmoidal functions of time to describe technolgical capability. Because technology deals with the physical world, it has physical limits. Therefore, real technological capability curves are sigmoidal.

Take for example transportation technologies. If we plot the miles of railroad track installed in the world since 1800, we see in the first 50 years what looks like exponential growth. Later the growth is linear, and then it levels off to zero growth (actually a slight decrease) in the middle of the 20th century.

In the case of passenger aircraft speed, we see dramatic improvements in the early 20th century, but the curve then becomes sigmoidal with a maximum speed (Boeing 707) being hit in the middle of the 20th century.

Right now computer processing power is growing exponentially (Moore's law), but within 50 years we should begin to see the ceiling.
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Robert the Bruce
post Oct 06, 2004, 12:24 PM
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There are areas of research yet untapped and/or in the very early processes of study. The limit of these areas and there integration is no where in sight.
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Rick
post Oct 06, 2004, 12:27 PM
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Indeed, much is not yet in sight. It will be interesting to find out in the future what is bounded and what is not.
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Robert the Bruce
post Oct 06, 2004, 12:56 PM
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And it could continue the geometric curve that we have seen going almost straight up for a decade and then who knows - it does seem almost impossible for it to keep going but Kurzweil and others are already talking about replicators - which would eliminate most problems of scarcity and supply.
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Rick
post Oct 06, 2004, 01:07 PM
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Nano-tech and replicators based on it make great science fiction, but the problems associated are enormous. We shall see.

Right now, the best nano-tech replicators in existence are the various natural life forms, and we know their limits.
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Robert the Bruce
post Oct 06, 2004, 01:22 PM
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As the article points out - science fiction has made scientists (paradigm) into the real fiction tellers.

The next few years requires huge advances in ethics or else our current leaders will continue to make the same mistakes - in a world no longer what it is now - and a world which can easily be brought to its demise.

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Rick
post Oct 06, 2004, 01:28 PM
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QUOTE (Robert the Bruce @ Oct 06, 02:22 PM)
The next few years requires huge advances in ethics or else our current leaders will continue to make the same mistakes - in a world no longer what it is now - and a world which can easily be brought to its demise.

I will second that. It was interesting that Bill Joy's article quoted the Unabomber's Manifesto quite effectively. There's more than one way to destroy civilization, however.
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Robert the Bruce
post Oct 06, 2004, 02:16 PM
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Yes, that was a very eye-opening experience for my older brother. He had been listening to me ramble on for years about all manner of things that Joy confirmed. However, Joy does not have the inside track (or is silent about) black budget research.
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Rick
post Oct 06, 2004, 02:20 PM
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Yeah, but who does? Not in government, that is.
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Robert the Bruce
post Oct 06, 2004, 03:28 PM
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Being as he was a member of the SALT team and on the President's Panel on IT - I suspect he knows things that make his warning more pertinent than the facts he is allowed to present.
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Robert the Bruce
post Oct 14, 2004, 11:02 AM
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This is from a correspondent of mine on a quantum physics site. The items inside {} are mine - the rest is his. He is from Gaithersburg Maryland.

From: Laurent (Original Message) Sent: 27/03/2003 10:41 PM
Electromagnetic fields should not appear as ultimate, irreducible
realities.

<< But therewith the conception of the ether has again acquired an
intelligible content, although this content differs widely from that
of the ether of the mechanical ondulatory theory of light. The ether
of the general theory of relativity is a medium which is itself
devoid of all mechanical and kinematical qualities, but helps to
determine mechanical (and electromagnetic) events. >> -- AE


If the aether were to be truly an all-pervading substance, which
existed in and outside of all matter, why would it need the property
of motion? Motion and time are for objects in spacetime.

The aether is everywhere, it is the set that contains all other
sets, the set of all sets. It is the circle Zenon, Bruno and Pascal
once described, a circle whose circumference is everywhere and the
center nowhere. It is not dependent on the geometry, but helps
determine the geometry of spacetime.

Local events are bound by the rules of spacetime, like linearity,
causality and determinism. Non-local effects (like the propagation
of a given objective state), are not really happening in spacetime,
they happen at the aether level, and are not bound by the rules of
spacetime.{Key to all paranormal events and the collective unconscious}

Without an aether there can't be a process such as spacetime,
there can't be any continuity, hence no causality or process. This is
also what Mach believed. Resistance to motion - he thought - could
only be the product of unity among all the masses (or objects). He
believed that there is a constant dependence (reciprocity) between
matter and the space that surrounds it, and that this unity could
only be explained by the existence of an aether.

There are no variations at the aether scale, no differences, no
measurable extensions or space-like separations, no boundaries.
This is why it is a non-mechanical medium. The aether is one.

Notions like motion, size, distance or time do not apply in the
description of the gravitational aether, and yet it is all
pervading, it is inside and outside of matter. The aether is
physical and yet has no material properties. It helps determine
ratios, like permittivity and permeability, and this ratios, in
turn, help determine the geometry of all space, from the metric
properties of spacetime to the geometry of tiny particles, like
quarks, and even particles from the chaotic ZPR, whose diameter
equals only one Planck length.

The aether helps determine things like the ratio of the electric
displacement in free space, to the intensity of the electric field
producing it (e0), or the ratio of the magnetic flux density, in free
space, to the external field strength, (m0). But it itself is
not observable, you can't say - here, lets take a look at this
aether! - because it is immaterial, real but not in spacetime, real
but not perceptible. This is why MMX failed so miserably.

Spacetime is, in a way, a product of the aether, this is why we say
the aether is the substrate to all matter AND space.

Lorentz invariant values originate at the aether level, they are
real but non-material effects which often help determine
Lorentz invariant geometrical properties of objects. This is why
some people find Topology to be such an interesting discipline.
They are a set of ratios determined at the aether scale; frame
independent constants.

Einstein's Gravitational Aether is more akin to Newton's absolute
space than most people think, but it is imbued with Mach's
reciprocity between matter and space, and relativation.

The reason that, in spacetime, frames must be related is because
it all comes from a single entity, reality is one single process,
the Universe is one, and all frames within the observable Universe
are related by the aether, through the aether. All frames depend on
the same aether.

But we have to be careful with meanings here. What Einstein was
referring to as 'empty space' is more akin to nothingness than the
empty space we usually talk about. Remember that at the time
Einstein wrote "The Ether and Relativity", QED was probably only a
crackpot's dream. He thought that, in order to obtain an empty
space, it was possible to extract all matter from a given volume.
It wasn't until Timothy Boyer that we began to understand the
different meanings of 'empty space'.

We must not to confuse the concept of space outlined by QED with
Einstein's gravitational aether. CBR and ZPR are observable,
material phenomena, with mechanical properties, like density and
pressure. The gravitational aether is a physical but non-material,
non-measurable, non-observable, yet very real substance.

The aether is not synonymous to space. Without an aether there can't
be any space, space is material and the aether is not. Space isn't just
full of photons and matter fields, it is the photons and the matter
fields. According to Einstein's GTR and Boyer's QED, space, matter
and EM fields are all synonymous. Matter and space are inseparable.
It is physically impossible to obtain a perfect vacuum, there will
always remain a measurable spectrum.

First was the aether, then CBR/ZPE, and finally the emergence of
Einstein's spacetime. Space is constituted by CBR and ZPE {Zero Point Energy, I think}, and spacetime is the continuous, causal process that emerged from the
eternal interactions between already existing matter and the CBR/ZPE
substrate. Space (CBR) is a medium with mechanical properties
(pressure and density). It is observable, hence measurable, and
unlike Einstein's aether, it possesses material, mechanical properties.

The empty space we are able to perceive, in spacetime, is there
because of background radiation. You take the background radiation
away and you can't have an empty space.

Einstein's Equivalency Principle says that a physical system
accelerated through the vacuum has the same equilibrium properties
as an unaccelerated system immersed in a gravitational field.

And Timothy Boyer said - 'A physical system accelerated through the
vacuum has the same equilibrium properties as an unaccelerated
system immersed in thermal radiation at a temperature above absolute
zero.'

And - 'At a temperature of absolute zero a harmonic oscillator in a
frame of reference at rest or moving with constant velocity is
subject only to zero-point oscillations. In an accelerated frame the
oscillator responds as if it were at a temperature greater than
zero.'

And this is how gravity is explained; space flow manifests as
gravitic pressure. Pressure goes higher as we get closer to the
source because space is denser. And this flow is caused by an
electromotive force.

The thermodynamics governing gravity and acceleration are
basically the same, these two processes are physically
indistinguishable from each other. As an object accelerates through
space, there is an EMR exchange between the object and space
(space being wholly constituted by EMR), as a mechanism in Nature
to keep thermal equilibrium between the accelerating object and
the space that surrounds it, and as required by GR's equivalency
principle. When an object is just seating, but immersed in a
gravitational field, space is the one being accelerated (by an
electromotive force) in relation to the object, and Nature, in order
to maintain thermal equilibrium, uses this mechanism, now known
as Boyer's 'equilibrium spectrum', Unruh-Davies radiation, Rindler
flux, or Hawking's radiation.

Nobody knows how the first vacuum fluctuations really happened, but
we all know for sure that they did.

Right now there is EMR and matter waves between you and everything
around you, flowing towards you and every object around you. EMR {Electro-magnetic Resonance} 'bounces' off, picking and transmitting information regarding each
object's objective state, while matter waves only flow inwardly,
towards each object, also bringing information about the
environment to each object, as each object continuously crystallizes
into spacetime.

There is a delay, as matter reaches thermal equilibrium with its
surroundings. We experience it as inertia. This is the nature of
Timothy Boyer's 'equilibrium spectrum'. It takes time for any
moving object to reach thermal equilibrium with its surroundings,
as it jumps from frame to frame in spacetime. Each frame being in
reality marked by the collapse of each matter wave front, like a
quantum clock, as inwardly flowing matter waves bring within
them some of the information necessary for each quantization,
for each objective state. Each object having its own rate, its own
wavelength, or, its own pulse, so to speak.

Each object, according to its own material properties, will
consequently exhibit its own inertial properties, like its own
weight and momentum.

The objective state of an object is instantaneously and holistically
transferred to the whole object, including its matter wave, through
space, as a non-local, non-linear function, by a mechanism of wave
superpositions. This non-locality is possible thanks to the aether's
oneness.

Space is made from particles, the aether is not, space is material,
the aether is not. Space is made from two types of particles, one
which resists compression, or exhibits negative-gravitation (thermal
radiation, light), and the other which is infinitely compressible and
exhibits positive-gravitation (zero-point radiation, dark matter).

Boyer described the ZPR as fundamental to space and thermal
radiation as a product generated by the motion of ZPR particles,
[which in turn were buffeted back into motion by this thermal
radiation which they themselves had produced, providing the basis
for a perpetual motion system, and solving the riddle of infinite
energies coming from space. See Puthoff, Haisch and Rueda's
papers]

Now, if space is made from particles, then it may be subject to
changes in pressure and density, like a gas. So space particles
(dark matter), carried by matter waves, continuously condense
into material objects. That would mean that the closer you get to
the object the denser the space would be, as a function of the
object's mass and radius, explaining why gravitic pressure obeys
the inverse square law. Space particles (dark matter) are carried
in by matter selective photons by an electric current, just like
electrons are moved by the electromotive force.

There are no empty spaces in the classical sense. There can't be
a void, not as a real thing. If it IS, then it isn't a void. A void is
synonymous to nothingness (no-thing), and if space is a thing
then, a void must logically be devoid from any notions of space
or space-like extensions. There is no place for voids in a spacetime
continuum either, or it wouldn't be a continuum.


<< It is not empty. Even when all matter and heat radiation have
been removed from a region of space, the vacuum of classical
physics remains filled with a distinctive pattern of electromagnetic
fields >> --- [From The Classical Vacuum - by Timothy H. Boyer,
Scientific American, August 1985, pp. 70-78.]


The aether is a physically finite substance, but is spatially
unbounded. Extension is a material property not applicable to the
aether. Density is also a non-applicable property when defining the
aether, it is only applicable when describing matter. Space is
material. Space and matter are inseparable, and the properties of
density and extension do apply.


<< But we can assert by reason of the relativistic equations of
gravitation that there must be a departure from Euclidean relations,
with spaces of cosmic order of magnitude, if there exists a positive
mean density, no matter how small, of the matter in the universe. In
this case the universe must of necessity be spatially unbounded and
of finite magnitude, its magnitude being determined by the value of
that mean density. >> -- A.E.


Because the aether is physically finite, matter is also finite at
any given moment, but infinite as a function of time and
transformation. Nature is the perpetual motion machine.

If the aether were not physically finite, then why would the
equivalency principle be necessary when describing the motion of a
material system under acceleration? Still it can be conceived as
infinitely divisible, or indivisible; simply because it is immaterial.

If Newton's view were to be correct, and objects could be considered
as really separated, and related only by their macroscopic mechanical
interactions (billiard ball model), then why would we need the
equivalency principle to accurately describe this Universe?
Einstein's equivalency principle (the basis for GR) sprang from the
same concept of unity and wholeness implied in most of Mach's ideas.
The Absolute is really the aether, not space. Newton's absolute
space (an empty plenum, a void, which he considered as something
real) was the seed from which Einstein's aether was born. This unity
and oneness of reality, which distills from GR, is the philosophical
basis for Einstein's Pantheism.

The beauty is in its simplicity. "The aether is a physical but
non-material substance..." It IS a substance but it is not material,
therefore it does not exist IN spacetime. Being is not the same as
existing.

We can't ascribe a property like extension to the aether because the
aether is immaterial. The aether IS, but it doesn't exist in spacetime,
therefore it isn't bound by spacetime rules. Extension is a property only
applicable to material objects existing IN spacetime. In order for the
aether to exist it must BECOME spacetime. The same happens with the
properties of motion and time, the aether IS but it doesn't exist IN
spacetime, hence it is eternal... not subject to change.


<< Being is a relative invariant in the overall process of becoming.
The basic ingredient must therefore be activity or process... >>
---- Basil Hiley


Now we understand how Being and Nature are one and the
same, and that even though Being is eternal, there is activity, and
from this activity, order can arise, which is then transformed into
spacetime or reality, thus making reality the product of Active
Information.

--
Laurent
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cerebral
post Feb 08, 2006, 10:16 PM
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QUOTE(Robert the Bruce @ Oct 14, 11:02 AM) *

<< Being is a relative invariant in the overall process of becoming.
The basic ingredient must therefore be activity or process... >>
---- Basil Hiley


Now we understand how Being and Nature are one and the
same, and that even though Being is eternal, there is activity, and
from this activity, order can arise, which is then transformed into
spacetime or reality, thus making reality the product of Active
Information.



Is this really meaningful in any way? Does such talk produce anything or does it ring hollow?

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