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> Those who used tests marked by letter A yield better performance than those having THE SAME marked by letter F, Article from Journal of Educational Psychology
equable
post Mar 10, 2010, 08:18 PM
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Those who used tests marked by letter A yield better performance than those having THE SAME marked by letter F.

Few days ago I read this article: lenta . ru /news/2010/03/09/letter/

It says that people given to make tests marked by letter A yield better performance than those having THE SAME marked by letter F.

British Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 80(1), pp 99-119, DOI 10.1348/000709909X466479
A versus F: The effects of implicit letter priming on cognitive performance
pp. 99-119(21)
Authors: Ciani, Keith D.; Sheldon, Kennon M.

bpsoc . publisher . ingentaconnect . com / content /bpsoc /bjep /2010 / 00000080/00000001 /art00006

Background. It has been proposed that motivational responses outside people’s
conscious awareness can be primed to affect academic performance. The current
research focused on the relationship between primed evaluative letters (A and F),
explicit and implicit achievement motivation, and cognitive performance.
Aim. Given the evaluative connotation associated with letter grades, we wanted to
know if exposure to the letter A before a task could improve performance, and
exposure to the letter F could impair performance. If such effects are found, we
suspected that they may be rooted in implicit approach versus avoidance motivation,
and occur without participants’ awareness.
Sample. The current research was conducted at a large research university in the
USA. Twenty-three undergraduates participated in Expt 1, 32 graduate students in
Expt 2, and 76 undergraduates in Expt 3.
Method. Expts 1 and 2 were conducted in classroom settings, and Expt 3 in a
laboratory. In Expt 1, participants were randomly assigned to either the A or F
condition. The letter manipulation came in the form of an ostensible Test Bank ID
code on the cover of an analogy test, which participants were prompted to view and
write on each page of their test. Expt 2 followed a similar procedure but included
the neutral letter J as a third condition to serve as a control. In Expt 3, participants’
letter condition was presented in the form of an ostensible Subject ID code prior to
an anagram test.
Results. Expts 1–3 demonstrated that exposure to the letter A enhances
performance relative to the exposure to the letter F, whereas exposure to the letter
F prior to an achievement task can impair performance. This effect was demonstrated
using two different types of samples (undergraduate and graduate students), in two
different experimental settings (classroom and laboratory), using two different types of
achievement tasks (analogy and anagram), and using two different types of letter
presentation (Test Bank ID and Subject ID). Results from the funnelled debriefing,
self-report goals, and word-stem completion support our position that the effect of
letter on academic performance takes place outside the conscious awareness of
participants.
Conclusions. Our findings suggest that students are vulnerable to evaluative letters
presented before a task, and support years of research highlighting the significant role
that nonconscious processes play in achievement settings.
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orangesand
post May 30, 2011, 08:32 AM
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This makes sense.
Two salads of equal "value" are made.
One on a fancy plate, one on a dirty/used/unwashed plate.
The people eat the salads.
The fancy plate salad tastes better(the A).
The dirty/used/unwashed plate makes people sick/disliked(the F).
An analogue of a slightly different design.
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