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> Ultrasound to manipulate brain functioning
BrainStim
post Jun 20, 2008, 05:57 PM
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I did a recent blog post about this new method to manipulate brain functioning.

Neurotechnology Ultrasound

QUOTE
"A new method of stimulating active tissue is proposed by propagating ultrasound in the presence of a magnetic field. Since tissue is conductive, particle motion created by an ultrasonic wave will induce an electric current density generated by Lorentz forces."

"Focused ultrasound has been used to modify electrical currents in neuronal tissue. This has been done by a combined application of a magnetic field and an ultrasonic field to neuronal and other tissue in the body."

"FUP is able to reach brain tissue much deeper, 2 or more centimeters into the brain, for example 2-12 cm. The FUP can also produce a focus of energy that will be only 0.5-2 mm. in diameter, as opposed to 2-3 cm.

"Low frequencies, below 300 Hz, will decrease the firing of the centers and inhibit or disrupt the neuronal circuits. High frequencies, 500 Hz to 5 MHz, will produce activation of firing of neuronal centers and activation of the circuits. In either case, the FUP will modify physiological properties in the circuits."
Through repeated stimulation of certain brain areas, this can change brain functioning for a longer period of time.

"Repeated application of the FUP to neuronal circuits will cause long-term or permanent changes to the circuits. The modification of the circuits using FUP will be used for the treatment of psychiatric, neurological and neuroendocrine disorders."
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BrainStim
post Nov 14, 2008, 04:53 PM
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Here's a recent paper.

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Possessing the ability to noninvasively elicit brain circuit activity yields immense experimental and therapeutic power. Most currently employed neurostimulation methods rely on the somewhat invasive use of stimulating electrodes or photon-emitting devices. Due to its ability to noninvasively propagate through bone and other tissues in a focused manner, the implementation of ultrasound (US) represents a compelling alternative approach to current neuromodulation strategies. Here, we investigated the influence of low-intensity, low-frequency ultrasound (LILFU) on neuronal activity. By transmitting US waveforms through hippocampal slice cultures and ex vivo mouse brains, we determined LILFU is capable of remotely and noninvasively exciting neurons and network activity.


Here's the news story.

QUOTE
Newswise — In a twist on nontraditional uses of ultrasound, a group of neuroscientists at Arizona State University has developed pulsed ultrasound techniques that can remotely stimulate brain circuit activity. Their findings, published in the Oct. 29 issue of the journal Public Library of Science (PLoS) One, provide insights into how low-power ultrasound can be harnessed for the noninvasive neurostimulation of brain circuits and offers the potential for new treatments of brain disorders and disease.
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BrainStim
post Jan 05, 2009, 03:54 PM
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Some more recent articles.
Researchers use ultrasonic pulses to control the brain

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This combination of low frequencies and low power represents a sweet spot where the sound readily penetrates the skull and affects brain cells. The sound waves temporarily knock open the cells’ voltage-gated sodium channels, special proteins that allow sodium ions to pass through the cells’ membranes. The result is a localized change in a cell’s polarity from negative to positive. The polarity change can be strong enough to cause the cell to release chemical neurotransmitters and thereby induce similar voltage changes in other neurons to which they are linked, resulting in movement or other behaviors.


Here's the ultrasonic neuromodulation lab webpage

Another article here.

Good vibrations…sound brain health
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