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> Cannabis relieves chronic pain, Cannabis applications in medicine
xanadu
post Jun 15, 2007, 03:25 PM
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http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/4286435.stm

ingredient in marijuana may stall decline from Alzheimer's disease, research suggests.

Scientists showed a synthetic version of the compound may reduce inflammation associated with Alzheimer's and thus help to prevent mental decline.

They hope the cannabinoid may be used to developed new drug therapies.

The research, by Madrid's Complutense University and the Cajal Institute, is published in the Journal of Neuroscience.
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Hey Hey
post Jun 16, 2007, 07:42 AM
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Importantly, the article states:

"There is also no evidence yet that cannabinoid-based drugs can slow the decline in human Alzheimer's patients."

Interestingly, and especially for the medicinal chemists:

Harriet Millward, of the Alzheimer's Research Trust, said there were two main types of cannabinoid receptor, CR1 and CR2.

"It is CR1 that produces most of the effects of marijuana, including the harmful ones.

"If it is possible to make drugs that act only on CR2, as suggested by the authors of this study, they might mimic the positive effects of cannabinoids without the damaging ones of marijuana.

"However, this is a fairly new field of research and producing such selective drugs is not an easy task.


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xanadu
post Jun 16, 2007, 11:00 AM
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http://www.newswise.com/articles/view/524250/

Newswise — New evidence in rats suggests that marijuana may contain compounds that slow the memory loss associated with Alzheimer’s disease.

Marijuana has strong anti-inflammatory effects, and many researchers believe that there is a compelling link between chronic inflammation and the progression of Alzheimer’s, said Gary Wenk, a study co-author and a professor of psychology at Ohio State University.

“Inflammation in the brain is part of aging,” Wenk said. “It happens to almost all of us as we age. But in some cases, this inflammation gets out of hand and causes serious damage.”

Treatment with a synthetic compound similar to marijuana reduced inflammation in older rats in addition to making the animals “smarter,” said Wenk, who is also a professor of neuroscience and molecular virology, immunology and medical genetics.

“The compound substantially improved the memories of the older rats,” he said. “These animals were able to hold on to key details of a specific task. Untreated older rats, on the other hand, were not.”

The researchers presented their findings October 18 in Atlanta at the annual Society for Neuroscience meeting.

Evidence suggests that people who regularly smoked marijuana in the 1960s and 1970s rarely develop Alzheimer’s disease, said Wenk, adding that researchers are eager to develop a drug with the anti-inflammatory properties of marijuana, but without the drug’s psychoactive effects.

The colleagues treated young and old rats with WIN-55212-2 (WIN), a synthetic drug similar to marijuana. While the compound improved memory and helped to control inflammation, it is not a candidate for use in humans because it still contains substances that could trigger a high.
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xanadu
post Jun 17, 2007, 11:00 AM
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http://mercycenters.org/libry/i_GLAU.html#Info

Glaucoma. The human eyeball is filled with fluid which exerts pressure to keep the eyeball spherical. Glaucoma is a condition where the drainage system channels through which the fluid flows gradually become blocked, thus preventing the nourishing fluid that is constantly produced inside the eyeball from flowing out.

The intraocular pressure (IOP) gradually increases causing increasing damage to the optic nerve and gradual deterioration of vision. This is called intraocular pressure because it is pressure inside the eye. As excessive amounts of fluid build up inside the eyeball, there is an increase in pressure. In glaucoma, intraocular pressure rises to abnormally high levels. When intraocular pressure gets too high, or remains at high levels for too long, it can cause permanent damage to the retina and the optic nerve. Because the optic nerve carries all visual information to the brain, this can often result in the impairment or even total loss of vision. visit: http://420-heaven.com/meduses/glaucomapg.htm Glaucoma is the second-largest cause of blindness, and affects 1.5% of 50-year olds and 5% of seventy-year olds.

Glaucoma is an eye disease that is defined as a characteristic optic neuropathy, or disease of the optic nerve. Raised intraocular pressure is a significant risk factor for developing glaucoma. There is no set threshold for intraocular pressure that causes glaucoma - while one person may develop nerve damage at a relatively low pressure, another person may have high eye pressures for years and yet never develop damage. Untreated glaucoma leads to permanent damage of the optic disc of the retina and resultant visual field loss, which can progress to blindness. visit: http://www.marijuana.com/wiki/Glaucoma

Glaucoma and Cannabis

Fourteen percent of all blindness in America is from glaucoma, a progressive loss of vision. Cannabis smoking would benefit 90% of our 2,500,000 glaucoma victims, and is two to three times as effective as any current medicines for reducing ocolar pressure. And, cannabis use has no toxic side effects to the liver and kidneys, nor is there any danger of the legal pharmaceutical glaucoma drugs/drops. Most California eye doctors will discreetly advise their patients to use "street" marijuana in addition to their toxic legal glaucoma medicines. visit: http://www.peacenotwar.com/glaucoma.htm and: visit: http://www.streetdrugtruth.com/drugs/marijunatruth.php4

Discovery of the ability of cannabis to lower intraocular pressure was more or less fortuitous. Intraocular pressure was measured as part of a multifaceted study of the effects of chronic smoking of large amounts of cannabis. Intraocular pressure was found to decrease as much as 45% in 9 of 11 subjects, 30 min after smoking. Lowered intraocular pressure lasted 4 to 5 h after smoking a single cigarette. Its magnitude was unrelated to the total number of cigarettes smoked. The maximal effect on intraocular pressure was produced by the amount of THC absorbed in a single cigarette containing 19 mg of THC. When patients with ocular hypertension or glaucoma were tested 7 of 11 showed a fall of intraocular pressure of 30%. Confirmatory evidence was obtained from a trial in which i.v. injection of THC in doses of 22 ug/kg and 44 ug/kg produced an average fall in intraocular pressure of 37%, with come decreases as much as 51% . Many experiments done in rabbits using various routes of administration, including instillation of cannabinoids into the eye, have confirmed the ability of cannabis to reduce intraocular pressure. visit: http://cannabis-seeds.com/medicinal-cannab...is-glaucoma.php

“Glaucoma” (article) Can smoking pot really cure glaucoma?
Q: “Can you please confirm if marijuana can cure glaucoma (eye disorder)? I live in England and my sister has this disease and is losing her eyesight.”

Jane, Cornwall, England

A: Marijuana lowers the intraocular pressure in the eye and this slows the progression of the disease. One of the seven patients remaining on the federal government's Compassionate Use program, Elvy Musika, claims that it is the only drug that has stabilized her condition. See “Ask Ed [Rosenthal]” at: visit: http://www.cannabisculture.com/articles/2904.html

Medical Use of Marijuana by Patients with Glaucoma (article) Marijuana has shown promise as a possible glaucoma treatment in numerous published studies. In controlled studies at UCLA, it was discovered that patients smoking marijuana experienced, on average, a 30% drop in eye pressure. visit: http://www.marijuana-as-medicine.org/Allia...s.html#Glaucoma

Elvy Musikka on Cannabis and Glaucoma; Elvy Musikka is a woman in her mid-forties who lives in Hollywood, Florida. This is her story:

In late February 1975 I went to see Dr. Rosenfeld, a general practitioner in the Ft. Lauderdale area. He concluded a very thorough examination and said my eyes had been stricken with glaucoma. My [intraocular fluid] pressures were in the high 40s [pressure in the low teens is normal], and Dr. Rosenfeld insisted I see an ophthalmologist immediately. His suspicions were confirmed and I was started on pilocarpine eyedrops.

Elvy Musikka on Cannabis and Glaucoma. from the chapter, "Glaucoma, " in Marijuana, The Forbidden Medicine, pp. 52-57, by Dr. Lester Grinspoon, M.D., Associate Professor of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School. and James B. Bakalar, associate editor of the Harvard Mental Health Letter and a Lecturer in Law in the Department of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School Yale University Press, New Haven, 1993, ISBN 0-300-05994-9. visit: http://www.pdxnorml.org/MTFM_Musikka_1993.html

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Rick
post Jun 18, 2007, 11:48 AM
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QUOTE(Hey Hey @ Jun 16, 2007, 08:42 AM) *
"It is CR1 that produces most of the effects of marijuana, including the harmful ones.

What are the "harmful" effects of cannabis? Aside from the smoke causing lung pollution. With good quality cannabis, it should take only a single inhalation for the full effect of the drug to be realized for several hours.
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Orbz
post Jun 18, 2007, 07:23 PM
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Was wondering about CB2 receptors, I thought CB2 receptors modulated mostly immune function, it seems science has travelled a fair bit, as it always does...


1: Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2007 Jan;28(1):39-45. Epub 2006 Dec 1.Click here to read Links
Cannabinoid CB2 receptor: a new target for controlling neural cell survival?
Fernández-Ruiz J, Romero J, Velasco G, Tolón RM, Ramos JA, Guzmán M.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Complutense University, 28040 Madrid, Spain. jjfr@med.ucm.es

Two types of cannabinoid receptor have been cloned and characterized. Whereas CB1 receptors are ubiquitously expressed in neurons of the CNS, CB2 receptors have been thought to be absent from the CNS. Recent data now question this notion and support the expression of CB2 receptors in microglial cells, astrocytes and even some neuron subpopulations. This discrete distribution makes CB2 receptors interesting targets for treating neurological disorders because CB2-selective agonists lack psychoactivity. Here, we review evidence supporting the idea that CB2 receptors are implicated in the control of fundamental neural cell processes, such as proliferation and survival, and that their pharmacological manipulation might be useful for both delaying the progression of neurodegenerative disorders and inhibiting the growth of glial tumors.
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Hey Hey
post Jun 19, 2007, 05:12 AM
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QUOTE(Rick @ Jun 18, 2007, 08:48 PM) *
With good quality cannabis, it should take only a single inhalation for the full effect of the drug to be realized for several hours.
It's a bit like assuming that any herbal medicine has precise pharmacological properties - not the case.
QUOTE(Rick @ Jun 18, 2007, 08:48 PM) *
What are the "harmful" effects of cannabis? Aside from the smoke causing lung pollution.
Cannabis smoking 'more harmful' than tobacco
14:02 11 November 2002
NewScientist.com news service
Emma Young

Smoking pure marijuana is at least as harmful to lungs as smoking tobacco, a report from the British Lung Foundation concludes. And in some key ways, it may be more dangerous.

For example, the BLF's review of previous research highlights that just three marijuana joints a day causes the same damage to the lung's airways as 20 cigarettes, mainly because of the way joints are smoked.

Individually, cannabis and tobacco produce the same constituents and quantities of chemicals known to be toxic to respiratory tissue, other than nicotine, the report says. But when cannabis and tobacco are smoked together, the health effects are worse.

"These statistics will come as a surprise to many people, especially those who choose to smoke cannabis rather than tobacco in the belief it is safer for them," says Mark Britton, chairman of the BLF. A UK survey conducted earlier in 2002 found that 79 per cent of children believed cannabis to be 'safe'.

Deep breath

A key finding highlighted by the review of 90 published papers is that the amount of smoke taken into the lungs is two thirds larger if cannabis is being smoked. The smoke is also taken one third deeper into the lungs - and that smoke is held an average of four times longer before being exhaled.

"You inhale deeper and hold your breath with the smoke for longer before exhaling. This results in more poisonous carbon monoxide and tar entering into the lungs," says Helena Shovelton, BLF's chief executive.

Other points in the report include:

• Tar from cannabis cigarettes contains up to 50 per cent higher concentrations of carcinogens benzathracenes and benzpyrenes than tobacco smoke

• THC, the primary psychoactive ingredient of cannabis, decreases the function of immune system cells that help protect the lungs from infection

• The average cannabis cigarette smoked in the 1960s contained about 10 milligrams of tetrahydrocanabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive ingredient. Today, it may contain 150 mg.

"This means that the modern cannabis smoker may be exposed to greater doses of THC than in the 1960s or 1970s," says the report. "This in turn means that studies investigating the long-term effects of smoking cannabis have to be interpreted cautiously."

Mouth spray

Cannabis is the most widely consumed illegal drug in the UK. In 2000, almost 45 per cent of 16 to 29 year olds in the UK said they had used cannabis at some point.

"We are not making any policy recommendations. The aim of this report is to try to inform the public that if you do choose to smoke cannabis, be aware of the health risks," says a BLF spokeswoman.

Cannabis-based medicines could be prescribed for medical use in the UK as early as 2003, following the recent success of final-stage trials. But medicinal cannabis is supplied through a mouth spray or in tablet form.

"We have always been keen to find additional ways of administering cannabis as a medicine," says Nina Booth-Clibborn of the UK's Medicinal Cannabis Research Foundation. "It did seem that smoking would not be the best way."

Lyndon Pugh, editor of pro-cannabis magazine CC Newz, is not impressed by the report: "These allegations have been made before countless times. Lot of things are dangerous, like driving."

HeyHey - so why have we reduced speed limits, speed bumps, seat belts, airbags, traffic lights, etc?
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Rick
post Jun 19, 2007, 10:33 AM
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I asked about harmful effects aside from smoke contamination of the lungs. With modern cannabis 15 times stronger than that of years ago, the smoker doesn't need to take 10 puffs, just one, and he doesn't need to take it deep and hold it. Ultimately, a THC atomizer could be used to avoid the lung contamination altogether.
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Hey Hey
post Jun 19, 2007, 01:13 PM
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My wife's main job for the past 10 years has been to screen people for intoxicants post-accident and prior to employment. Her experience of clients is that social c users imbibe as though they were smoking cigarettes.
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xanadu
post Jun 19, 2007, 01:19 PM
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Bake brownies or use other forms such as cannabutter and that little argument goes up in smoke. Nothing to inhale so no harm at all to the lungs. All benefits and no problem.
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xanadu
post Jun 21, 2007, 03:02 PM
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http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn6387

Cannabis truly helps multiple sclerosis sufferers

* 16:37 10 September 2004
* NewScientist.com news service
* Anna Gosline, Exeter

Cannabis may loosen the stiff and spastic muscles of multiple sclerosis sufferers, and not just their minds, a follow-up study has found.

The results contradict findings from the first phase of the study, where improvements seemed to be largely due to "good moods".

“There does seem to be evidence of some benefit from cannabis in the longer term that we didn’t anticipate in the short term study,” says John Zajicek, at Peninsula Medical School in Exeter, UK, and one of the research team.

In 2003, Zajicek and his colleagues published results on the largest study to date of cannabinoids and MS. The trial included 630 advanced-stage MS patients who took either cannabinoid compounds or a placebo for 15 weeks.

Compared with those on placebos, patients who received active compounds said they both felt less pain and less muscle spasticity – the spasms characteristic of this neurodegenerative disease.
Good guess

But physiotherapists using standard evaluations were unable to corroborate the patients' claims of improved mobility or muscle stiffness.

The results were further complicated because about two thirds of the patients who received cannabis compounds, such as D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), guessed they had not received a placebo, due to the drugs effect on their mind.

The knowledge that they were receiving an active compound, along with the mood-altering effects of THC, may have explained why subjects reported improvements.

“If you’ve got a drug that elevates mood and makes people feel better, how can you be sure that it’s really affecting their underlying disease and their symptoms?” asks Zajicek.
Marked improvement

When the short-term study ended, however, the researchers gave all subjects the opportunity to continue their treatment for a full year. The team wanted to extend the study to gather information on the safety of long-term cannabinoid use.

More than 500 patients agreed to stay on their original treatment. One group took pills of D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active ingredient in cannabis. The second group received natural cannabis extract, and the third group took a placebo.

At the end of the 12 month period, the patients were evaluated again using the same measures as in the first study. But this time, physiotherapists saw a marked improvement for subjects on active drugs. They had reduced muscle spasticity and an improved overall score for their level of disability.

Zajicek is cautious about the implications of the study as it was not specifically designed to test the efficacy of drugs over 12 months. But the results do support animal research that shows cannabinoids may slow nerve cell death and protect against damage.

The findings were presented at the British Association for the Advancement of Science Festival, in Exeter, UK.

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Hey Hey
post Jun 22, 2007, 08:58 AM
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http://www.mstrust.org.uk/downloads/cannabis.pdf
http://www.mstrust.org.uk/publications/fac...ts/cannabis.jsp
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Rick
post Jun 22, 2007, 10:34 AM
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Is Hey Hey "coming around" on the dope smoking issue? Live and let live? Or harangue and harrass the drug fiends? Exercise free will.
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xanadu
post Jun 23, 2007, 11:29 AM
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http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/2288244.stm

A large trial of cannabis-based medicines has produced compelling evidence that they can help to reduce pain, say scientists.

GW Pharmaceuticals has been given a licence by the UK government to test a range of cannabis-based prescription medicines.


there will be a market for all three medicines in pain treatment in due course

Dr Geoffrey Guy
Its latest work focused on 34 patients with multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury and other conditions causing severe pain.

None of the patients had responded well to current medications, but 28 said that using cannabis-based treatments reduced their pain and helped them to sleep more soundly.

Each patient was given three different types of medication which contained different levels of the active ingredients of cannabis. All out-performed a dummy medication.

Remarkable findings

The research was conducted by Dr Willy Notcutt, at his pain clinic at the James Paget Hospital, Great Yarmouth.

He said: "Patients in this trial are suffering from severe pain - it dominates their lives.

"Given the previously intractable nature of their pain symptoms, the improvements provided by cannabis-based medicines are all the more remarkable.

"Many of those with chronic pain also suffer from a poor quality of sleep, which - over time - can have profoundly negative effects on them and their families.

"By bringing about improvements in their sleep regime, as well their pain, we can have a major positive impact on their quality of life."

The number of patients who took part in the trial is still relatively small, and further research is required before cannabis-based medicines are made widely available.

However, Dr Geoffrey Guy, GW executive chairman, said: "We are delighted with the results of this study in patients with severe pain.

"The data shows improvements with all three of our cannabis-based medicines and we therefore believe that there will be a market for all three medicines in pain treatment in due course."

GW plans to release data about more advanced clinical trials later this year.

The Medicinal Cannabis Research Foundation (MCRF) welcomed the results of the trial.

Lord Rea, MCRF lead trustee, said: "We are encouraged that patients in this study have gained significant benefit and that the medicines appear to be well tolerated.

"We are also heartened to hear that the Phase III trials are proceeding well and look forward to hearing the results. If these are good, it really does look promising for patients, many of whom cannot find any existing remedy which relieves their distressing symptoms."


See also:

23 Oct 01 | Health
Medicinal cannabis set to be legalised
06 Sep 01 | Health
MS patients sign for cannabis trials
31 May 01 | UK
'Pain drove me to pot'
10 Aug 01 | Health
Pain test for cannabis
05 Jul 01 | Health
Cannabis 'not medical panacea'
16 Jan 02 | Health
Cannabis medicine trial expanded
Internet links:

Alliance for Cannabis Therapeutics
UK Cannabis Internet Activists
GW Pharmaceuticals
Medical Cannabis Research Foundation
Medicinal Cannabis Research Foundation

The BBC is not responsible for the content of external internet sites
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Links to more Health stories are at the foot of the page.

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Flex
post Dec 13, 2007, 02:40 PM
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To be blunt, I am in the market for a club card smile.gif Anyone have suggestions on the best method of acquiring a prescription? Note that I am a Northern California resident.
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Discordia
post Dec 13, 2007, 03:13 PM
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My girlfriend has horrible chronic back pains...and at such a young age...it would be nice if she could have some of the greens for medicinal use. I am a firm believer that the world would be a much happier place, and our prison systems would not be so overcrowded, if marijuana was legal.
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Flex
post Jan 25, 2008, 06:22 PM
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If I wish to get a Marinol prescription, what should I tell my doctor?

Possible reasons I can think of:
history of migraine headaches
insomnia

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trojan_libido
post Jan 28, 2008, 12:48 AM
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I'm interested too.
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post Feb 06, 2008, 05:30 AM
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Stop.HammerTime
post Nov 27, 2015, 10:59 AM
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Excellent thread, thank you for the journals published thus far. I have databse access at UofT and Sheridan College - please PM me if you would like log in info, as there are a number of studies there that I cannot hyperlink to here. I also want to control the number of people who get this sensitive info.

Anyway, just here to celebrate Justin Trudeau's legalization policy (impending)!

Does anybody know what happens to a pending marijuana charge in a social/federal climate that has basically done everything to legalize marijuana except address legal policy? I have considered calling some of the law offices in my area but have not gone for the free consultation yet. I am asking for a friend - I know how funny that sounds.
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