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> Resveratrol - new wonder drug found in foods
xanadu
post Jun 19, 2007, 01:29 PM
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Resveratrol has a wide range of benefits including anti-cancer activity, heart and circulatory protection, it's an antioxidant and seems to promote increased endurance through possibly improving mitochondria function as well as other benefits. Here is a sampling from an article I found. I will be posting more info on this wonderful compound later. It can be found in red grapes, wine, peanuts, mullberries as well as in giant knotweed.

http://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/nmdrugp.../res_0224.shtml

Resveratrol is found in grapevines (Vitis vinifera L). It occurs in the vines, roots, seeds and stalks, but its highest concentration is in grape skins. Wine also contains resveratrol. The concentration of resveratrol in red wine is much higher than that of white wine. The main difference between red and white wine production, besides the grapes used, is that for red wine the skins and seeds are involved in the process, while white wine is mainly prepared from the juice, essentially avoiding the use of grape skins and seeds. During the wine making process, resveratrol, as well as other polyphenols, including quercetin, catechins, gallocatechins, procyanidins and prodelphidins (condensed tannins), are extracted from the grape skins via a process called maceration.

Resveratrol, as well as the other polyphenols in wine, is thought to account in large part for the so-called French Paradox. The French Paradox—the finding that the rate of coronary heart disease mortality in France is lower than observed in other industrialized countries with a similar risk factor profile—has been attributed to frequent consumption of red wine.

In addition to grapes and wine, dietary sources of resveratrol include peanuts and mulberries. Resveratrol is also found in significant amounts in the dried roots and stems of the plant Polygonium cuspidatum Sieb. Et Zucc., also known as the Japanese knotweed. The dried root and stem of this plant is used in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine as a circulatory tonic, among other things. This traditional Chinese and Japanese remedy is also known as Hu Zhang, Hu Chang, tiger cane, kojo-kon and hadori-kon. Most of the resveratrol-containing supplements which are marketed in the U.S. contain extracts of the root of Polygonium cuspidatum. Darakchasava, an ayurvedic herbal remedy, has as its principal ingredient Vitis vinifera L, and therefore, contains resveratrol. It is mainly used in ayurvedic medicine as a cardiotonic.

Resveratrol, which is also known as 3,4',5 trihydroxystilbene and 3,4',5-stilbenetriol, exists in cis- and trans-stereoisomeric forms. Resveratrol is the parent molecule of a family of polymers called viniferins. Cis- and trans-resveratrol occur naturally as do their glucosides. Resveratrol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside is also known as piceid, and the respective cis- and trans-glucosides are called cis-piceid and trans-piceid. The molecular formula of resveratrol is C14H12O3 and its molecular weight is 228.25 daltons. It is represented by the following structural formula:

Resveratrol

The stereoisomer of resveratrol found in grapes and peanuts is the trans-form. Both cis- and trans-resveratrol are found in Polygonium cuspidatum. Therefore, dietary supplements containing resveratrol, which are principally derived from this plant, contain both stereoisomers. The amount of resveratrol (trans-resveratrol) in peanuts ranges from 0.02 to 1.79 micrograms per gram. Red wine contains from 0.6 to 0.8 micrograms per milliliter, and fresh grape skin, approximately 50 to 100 micrograms per gram. A glass of red wine delivers on the average, between 600 to 700 micrograms of resveratrol.
ACTIONS AND PHARMACOLOGY
ACTIONS

Resveratrol may have cardioprotective and antiproliferative actions.
MECHANISM OF ACTION

Resveratrol has several activities that may account for its possible cardioprotective action. These include inhibition of the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation and inhibition of platelet aggregation. Resveratrol has also been found to reduce the synthesis of lipids in rat liver and to inhibit the production of proatherogenic eicosanoids by human platelets and neutrophils.

Resveratrol's antioxidant activity may play an important role in its possible cardioprotective action. Above, was mentioned its ability to inhibit the oxidation of LDL. Resveratrol also has been found to exert a strong inhibitory effect on superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide production by macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharides or phorbol esters. It also has been demonstrated to decrease arachidonic acid release induced by lipopolysaccharides or phorbol esters, or by exposure to superoxide or hydrogen peroxide. It has hydroxyl-radical scavenging activity and has recently been found to possess glutathione-sparing activity.

In a rat study of the effect of resveratrol on ischemia-reperfusion, it was found that the substance had a dramatic effect against ischemia-reperfusion-induced arrhythmias and mortality. Resveratrol pretreatment both reduced the incidence and duration of ventricular dysrhythmias, including ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. Resveratrol pretreatment also increased nitric oxide and decreased lactate dehydrogenase levels in the carotid blood. In this example, the cardioprotective effect of resveratrol may be correlated with its antioxidant activity, upregulation of nitric oxide synthesis and protection against endothelial dysfunction.

Resveratrol's possible phytoestrogenic activity may also contribute to its possible cardioprotective action. Resveratrol appears to act as a mixed agonist/antagonist for estrogen receptors alpha and beta. It has been found to bind estrogen receptor beta and estrogen receptor alpha with comparable affinity but with 7,000-fold lower affinity than estradiol. Resveratrol differs from other phytoestrogens, which bind estrogen receptor beta with higher affinity than they bind estrogen receptor alpha. Resveratrol also shows estradiol antagonistic behavior for estrogen receptor alpha with some estrogen receptors. It does not show estradiol antagonistic activity with estrogen receptor beta.

Resveratrol's possible antiproliferative activity also may be accounted for in several different ways. Resveratrol's antioxidant activity was discussed above. It also has antimutagenic activity, as illustrated by its dose-dependent inhibition of the mutagenic response induced by treatment of Salmonella typhimurium strain TM677 with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). Resveratrol has been found to inhibit cellular events associated with tumor initiation, promotion and progression. It has been found to inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX) activities in different cancer models, suggesting an effect at the level of tumor promotion. It has also been found to reverse tumor-promoter-induced inhibition of gap-junctional intracellular communication in rat epithelial cells. Inhibition of gap-junctional intracellular communication is an important mechanism of tumor promotion.

Resveratrol has demonstrated inhibition of growth of several cancer cell lines and tumors, suggesting that it has an inhibitory effect on cancer promotion/progression. It has been found to inhibit ribonucleotide reductase, DNA polymerase, the transcription of COX-2 in human mammary epithelial cells and the activity of ornithine decarboxylase. Ornithine decarboxylase is a key enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis, which is enhanced in tumor growth.

Resveratrol has also been found to induce phase II metabolizing enzymes which are involved in the detoxification of carcinogens, to upregulate apoptosis, to inhibit the progression of cancer by inducing cell differentiation and to inhibit protein kinase D and possibly protein kinase C. Recently, resveratrol has been shown to inhibit both NF-kappaB activation and NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression via its ability to inhibit IkappaB kinase activity, the key regulator of NF-kappaB activation. This appears to upregulate apoptosis.

It is clear that resveratrol has a wide range of activities that may account for its possible antiproliferative action. It is also clear that the mechanism of this possible action is far from being understood.
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post Jun 19, 2007, 02:00 PM
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A very broad range of pharmacological activity is not necessarily a good thing when looking for a clinically useful agent, as side-effects can be extensive for any particular focus of application. One example here: resveratrol is a potent inhibitor of both catalytic activities of COX-1, the desired drug target for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, but only a weak inhibitor of the peroxidase activity of COX-2, the isoform target for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (http://www.jbc.org/cgi/content/full/279/21/22727), and selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition causes damage to portal hypertensive gastric mucosa (http://www.fasebj.org/cgi/content/full/19/9/1163).
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post Jun 19, 2007, 11:15 PM
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QUOTE(xanadu @ Jun 19, 2007, 04:29 PM) *
Resveratrol has a wide range of benefits including anti-cancer activity, heart and circulatory protection, it's an antioxidant and seems to promote increased endurance through possibly improving mitochondria function as well as other benefits. Here is a sampling from an article I found. I will be posting more info on this wonderful compound later. It can be found in red grapes, wine, peanuts, mullberries as well as in giant knotweed.

http://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/nmdrugp.../res_0224.shtml

Resveratrol is found in grapevines (Vitis vinifera L). It occurs in the vines, roots, seeds and stalks, but its highest concentration is in grape skins. Wine also contains resveratrol. The concentration of resveratrol in red wine is much higher than that of white wine. The main difference between red and white wine production, besides the grapes used, is that for red wine the skins and seeds are involved in the process, while white wine is mainly prepared from the juice, essentially avoiding the use of grape skins and seeds. During the wine making process, resveratrol, as well as other polyphenols, including quercetin, catechins, gallocatechins, procyanidins and prodelphidins (condensed tannins), are extracted from the grape skins via a process called maceration.

Resveratrol, as well as the other polyphenols in wine, is thought to account in large part for the so-called French Paradox. The French Paradox��"the finding that the rate of coronary heart disease mortality in France is lower than observed in other industrialized countries with a similar risk factor profile��"has been attributed to frequent consumption of red wine.

In addition to grapes and wine, dietary sources of resveratrol include peanuts and mulberries. Resveratrol is also found in significant amounts in the dried roots and stems of the plant Polygonium cuspidatum Sieb. Et Zucc., also known as the Japanese knotweed. The dried root and stem of this plant is used in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine as a circulatory tonic, among other things. This traditional Chinese and Japanese remedy is also known as Hu Zhang, Hu Chang, tiger cane, kojo-kon and hadori-kon. Most of the resveratrol-containing supplements which are marketed in the U.S. contain extracts of the root of Polygonium cuspidatum. Darakchasava, an ayurvedic herbal remedy, has as its principal ingredient Vitis vinifera L, and therefore, contains resveratrol. It is mainly used in ayurvedic medicine as a cardiotonic.

Resveratrol, which is also known as 3,4',5 trihydroxystilbene and 3,4',5-stilbenetriol, exists in cis- and trans-stereoisomeric forms. Resveratrol is the parent molecule of a family of polymers called viniferins. Cis- and trans-resveratrol occur naturally as do their glucosides. Resveratrol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside is also known as piceid, and the respective cis- and trans-glucosides are called cis-piceid and trans-piceid. The molecular formula of resveratrol is C14H12O3 and its molecular weight is 228.25 daltons. It is represented by the following structural formula:

Resveratrol

The stereoisomer of resveratrol found in grapes and peanuts is the trans-form. Both cis- and trans-resveratrol are found in Polygonium cuspidatum. Therefore, dietary supplements containing resveratrol, which are principally derived from this plant, contain both stereoisomers. The amount of resveratrol (trans-resveratrol) in peanuts ranges from 0.02 to 1.79 micrograms per gram. Red wine contains from 0.6 to 0.8 micrograms per milliliter, and fresh grape skin, approximately 50 to 100 micrograms per gram. A glass of red wine delivers on the average, between 600 to 700 micrograms of resveratrol.
ACTIONS AND PHARMACOLOGY
ACTIONS

Resveratrol may have cardioprotective and antiproliferative actions.
MECHANISM OF ACTION

Resveratrol has several activities that may account for its possible cardioprotective action. These include inhibition of the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation and inhibition of platelet aggregation. Resveratrol has also been found to reduce the synthesis of lipids in rat liver and to inhibit the production of proatherogenic eicosanoids by human platelets and neutrophils.

Resveratrol's antioxidant activity may play an important role in its possible cardioprotective action. Above, was mentioned its ability to inhibit the oxidation of LDL. Resveratrol also has been found to exert a strong inhibitory effect on superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide production by macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharides or phorbol esters. It also has been demonstrated to decrease arachidonic acid release induced by lipopolysaccharides or phorbol esters, or by exposure to superoxide or hydrogen peroxide. It has hydroxyl-radical scavenging activity and has recently been found to possess glutathione-sparing activity.

In a rat study of the effect of resveratrol on ischemia-reperfusion, it was found that the substance had a dramatic effect against ischemia-reperfusion-induced arrhythmias and mortality. Resveratrol pretreatment both reduced the incidence and duration of ventricular dysrhythmias, including ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. Resveratrol pretreatment also increased nitric oxide and decreased lactate dehydrogenase levels in the carotid blood. In this example, the cardioprotective effect of resveratrol may be correlated with its antioxidant activity, upregulation of nitric oxide synthesis and protection against endothelial dysfunction.

Resveratrol's possible phytoestrogenic activity may also contribute to its possible cardioprotective action. Resveratrol appears to act as a mixed agonist/antagonist for estrogen receptors alpha and beta. It has been found to bind estrogen receptor beta and estrogen receptor alpha with comparable affinity but with 7,000-fold lower affinity than estradiol. Resveratrol differs from other phytoestrogens, which bind estrogen receptor beta with higher affinity than they bind estrogen receptor alpha. Resveratrol also shows estradiol antagonistic behavior for estrogen receptor alpha with some estrogen receptors. It does not show estradiol antagonistic activity with estrogen receptor beta.

Resveratrol's possible antiproliferative activity also may be accounted for in several different ways. Resveratrol's antioxidant activity was discussed above. It also has antimutagenic activity, as illustrated by its dose-dependent inhibition of the mutagenic response induced by treatment of Salmonella typhimurium strain TM677 with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). Resveratrol has been found to inhibit cellular events associated with tumor initiation, promotion and progression. It has been found to inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX) activities in different cancer models, suggesting an effect at the level of tumor promotion. It has also been found to reverse tumor-promoter-induced inhibition of gap-junctional intracellular communication in rat epithelial cells. Inhibition of gap-junctional intracellular communication is an important mechanism of tumor promotion.

Resveratrol has demonstrated inhibition of growth of several cancer cell lines and tumors, suggesting that it has an inhibitory effect on cancer promotion/progression. It has been found to inhibit ribonucleotide reductase, DNA polymerase, the transcription of COX-2 in human mammary epithelial cells and the activity of ornithine decarboxylase. Ornithine decarboxylase is a key enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis, which is enhanced in tumor growth.

Resveratrol has also been found to induce phase II metabolizing enzymes which are involved in the detoxification of carcinogens, to upregulate apoptosis, to inhibit the progression of cancer by inducing cell differentiation and to inhibit protein kinase D and possibly protein kinase C. Recently, resveratrol has been shown to inhibit both NF-kappaB activation and NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression via its ability to inhibit IkappaB kinase activity, the key regulator of NF-kappaB activation. This appears to upregulate apoptosis.

It is clear that resveratrol has a wide range of activities that may account for its possible antiproliferative action. It is also clear that the mechanism of this possible action is far from being understood.


It's a interesting compound but I look forward to analogs and derivatives with better defined biochemical effects.
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xanadu
post Jun 20, 2007, 11:10 AM
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http://www3.interscience.wiley.com:8100/le...resveratrol.htm

For years, scientists have been puzzled by the so-called "French Paradox": although the French tend to eat diets higher in saturated fats than American diets while exercising less and smoking more, people in France experience cardiovascular disease at a rate about 40% lower than that of Americans. Several studies have suggested that a possible solution to the French Paradox is the relatively high consumption of wine—particularly red wine—in France.
The chemical structure of resveratrol.

Particular attention has been given to a compound found in high concentration in grape skins called resveratrol, for research suggests that it is an antioxidant, affects lipid metabolism, acts as an anti-inflammatory, blocks platelet aggregation, slows the progression of many cancers, and possibly increases the human lifespan. Identification of such compounds is important, since the red wine itself can lead to a wide range of problems, both social and physical, from impaired judgment to liver damage. Although the news reports usually focus on the health benefits of red wine, resveratrol is also found in other food plants, including peanuts, mulberries, and raspberries. Resveratrol tablets are also available, although other related compounds found in the food plants are likely also effective in prevention of heart disease. Resveratrol, or trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene, belongs to a group of compounds called polyphenols.
Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

Resveratrol's heart-disease prevention seems to arise from at least two different activities. First, the antioxidant activity of resveratrol has been shown to affect lipid metabolism. Since resveratrol contains both hydrophilic and hydrophobic components, it is believed to act more effectively than other well-known antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E. Resveratrol interacts with lipids, particularly low-density lipoproteins (LDLs, so-called "bad cholesterol"), and prevents peroxidative degradation of these lipids by scavenging oxygen free radicals. Damaged LDLs are more likely to form arterial plaques, so by preventing LDL degradation antioxidants guard against atherosclerosis.

Resveratrol also appears to inhibit platelet aggregation, which in turn also helps to prevent the formation of plaques. Resveratrol has been shown to inhibit transcription of the genes that code for the cyclooxygenase enzymes COX-1 and COX-2. These enzymes are used by cells to produce prostaglandins, which, among other things, are the key mediators of platelet aggregation. The anti-COX activity of resveratrol also causes resveratrol's anti-inflammatory activity (see the Aspirin article).
Cancer Prevention and Treatment

Besides their role in plaque formation, oxygen free radicals also damage DNA. Damage of certain genes, such as those involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, can cause a cell to become cancerous. By scavenging these oxygen free radicals, the antioxidant resveratrol helps to prevent cancer.

Resveratrol has also been shown to induce apoptosis (programmed cell death) in cancer cells. Resveratrol appears to activate the p53 protein, which in turn induces apoptosis in cells in which DNA has been damaged. Additionally, resveratrol seems to induce apoptosis in some cancer cell lines through a p53-independent pathway.

However, resveratrol has also been shown to act as a phytoestrogen, or plant-derived estrogen mimic. Since such compounds have been shown to possibly increase the risk of breast cancer in women, it is conceivable that resveratrol's cancer-preventing effect is at least partially offset by a tendency to increase the rate of cancer in women.
An Elixir of Youth?

Recent studies have shown yet another possible benefit of resveratrol. Research has shown that increasing the activity of a single gene, SIR2, can extend the lifespan of yeast by as much as 70%. It is believed that the protein product of this gene stabilizes DNA, and perhaps negatively regulates the p53 promoter. An analogous gene, SIRT1, has been identified in human cells.

Resveratrol, along with several other polyphenols, appears to activate SIR2 in yeast cells. Yeast cells fed a diet including resveratrol were able to divide about 40 times before dying, compared to about 25 times for yeast on a diet lacking resveratrol. Similar results have been shown for fruitflies (granting about ten days to their usual one-month lifespan)
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post Jun 20, 2007, 11:24 AM
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QUOTE(xanadu @ Jun 20, 2007, 08:10 PM) *

http://www3.interscience.wiley.com:8100/le...resveratrol.htm

For years, scientists have been puzzled by the so-called "French Paradox": although the French tend to eat diets higher in saturated fats than American diets while exercising less and smoking more, people in France experience cardiovascular disease at a rate about 40% lower than that of Americans. Several studies have suggested that a possible solution to the French Paradox is the relatively high consumption of wine—particularly red wine—in France.
The chemical structure of resveratrol.

Particular attention has been given to a compound found in high concentration in grape skins called resveratrol, for research suggests that it is an antioxidant, affects lipid metabolism, acts as an anti-inflammatory, blocks platelet aggregation, slows the progression of many cancers, and possibly increases the human lifespan. Identification of such compounds is important, since the red wine itself can lead to a wide range of problems, both social and physical, from impaired judgment to liver damage. Although the news reports usually focus on the health benefits of red wine, resveratrol is also found in other food plants, including peanuts, mulberries, and raspberries. Resveratrol tablets are also available, although other related compounds found in the food plants are likely also effective in prevention of heart disease. Resveratrol, or trans-3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene, belongs to a group of compounds called polyphenols.
Cardiovascular Disease Prevention

Resveratrol's heart-disease prevention seems to arise from at least two different activities. First, the antioxidant activity of resveratrol has been shown to affect lipid metabolism. Since resveratrol contains both hydrophilic and hydrophobic components, it is believed to act more effectively than other well-known antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E. Resveratrol interacts with lipids, particularly low-density lipoproteins (LDLs, so-called "bad cholesterol"), and prevents peroxidative degradation of these lipids by scavenging oxygen free radicals. Damaged LDLs are more likely to form arterial plaques, so by preventing LDL degradation antioxidants guard against atherosclerosis.

Resveratrol also appears to inhibit platelet aggregation, which in turn also helps to prevent the formation of plaques. Resveratrol has been shown to inhibit transcription of the genes that code for the cyclooxygenase enzymes COX-1 and COX-2. These enzymes are used by cells to produce prostaglandins, which, among other things, are the key mediators of platelet aggregation. The anti-COX activity of resveratrol also causes resveratrol's anti-inflammatory activity (see the Aspirin article).
Cancer Prevention and Treatment

Besides their role in plaque formation, oxygen free radicals also damage DNA. Damage of certain genes, such as those involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, can cause a cell to become cancerous. By scavenging these oxygen free radicals, the antioxidant resveratrol helps to prevent cancer.

Resveratrol has also been shown to induce apoptosis (programmed cell death) in cancer cells. Resveratrol appears to activate the p53 protein, which in turn induces apoptosis in cells in which DNA has been damaged. Additionally, resveratrol seems to induce apoptosis in some cancer cell lines through a p53-independent pathway.

However, resveratrol has also been shown to act as a phytoestrogen, or plant-derived estrogen mimic. Since such compounds have been shown to possibly increase the risk of breast cancer in women, it is conceivable that resveratrol's cancer-preventing effect is at least partially offset by a tendency to increase the rate of cancer in women.
An Elixir of Youth?

Recent studies have shown yet another possible benefit of resveratrol. Research has shown that increasing the activity of a single gene, SIR2, can extend the lifespan of yeast by as much as 70%. It is believed that the protein product of this gene stabilizes DNA, and perhaps negatively regulates the p53 promoter. An analogous gene, SIRT1, has been identified in human cells.

Resveratrol, along with several other polyphenols, appears to activate SIR2 in yeast cells. Yeast cells fed a diet including resveratrol were able to divide about 40 times before dying, compared to about 25 times for yeast on a diet lacking resveratrol. Similar results have been shown for fruitflies (granting about ten days to their usual one-month lifespan)

QUOTE(Hey Hey @ Jun 19, 2007, 11:00 PM) *

A very broad range of pharmacological activity is not necessarily a good thing when looking for a clinically useful agent, as side-effects can be extensive for any particular focus of application. One example here: resveratrol is a potent inhibitor of both catalytic activities of COX-1, the desired drug target for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, but only a weak inhibitor of the peroxidase activity of COX-2, the isoform target for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (http://www.jbc.org/cgi/content/full/279/21/22727), and selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition causes damage to portal hypertensive gastric mucosa (http://www.fasebj.org/cgi/content/full/19/9/1163).

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xanadu
post Jun 21, 2007, 12:31 PM
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Resveratrol has a number of interesting effects that they've found so far. I'm taking it myself but only at a (relatively) low dosage of 40mg per day. Some people take up to a gram or more per day. Effects that I've heard people tell of are weight loss, increased endurance, a feeling of well being, lower LDL and higher HDL in blood tests and a few other things. I myself have noticed the lift in mood. Side effects can include nausea or heightened aggressiveness though that seems to be rare.

http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn1059...-endurance.html

High doses of a compound found naturally in grape skins and red wine can improve muscle endurance in mice, and the compound also keeps them slim, a new study shows.

The effects of resveratrol are so pronounced that endurance athletes may one day take it as a performance enhancer, experts speculate.

Johan Auwerx at the Institute of Genetics and Molecular and Cell Biology in Illkirch, France, and colleagues placed mice on a high-fat diet. Half of those mice received daily amounts of up to 400 milligrams of resveratrol per kilogram of body weight. A person would have to drink about 100 glasses of wine in just one day to obtain a similar dose of resveratrol, Auwerx says.

After three weeks, the mice on the resveratrol supplements weighed only about 20% more than mice on a standard diet. But those on the high-fat diet that did not receive the supplement weighed 60% more than the control mice. The resveratrol also improved the rodents endurance in fitness tests, and seemed to have no toxic side effects.

Mice on the high-fat diet that also took resveratrol were able to run twice as far on a treadmill as those on the same diet but without the supplement, even after the animals’ weight differences were taken into account.
Pathway trigger

Resveratrol boosts muscle endurance by increasing the energy-producing components within muscle cells, called mitochondria, the researchers believe. Auwerx says that high-doses of resveratrol are needed to trigger the pathway that gives cells more mitochondria. “At very low doses you don’t activate the cell machinery to burn energy,” he explains, banishing the idea that the odd glass of wine might improve athletic prowess.

Mitochondria play a crucial role in burning fat to provide fuel for endurance exercise, perhaps explaining why mice on the supplement were slimmer in the study, Auwerx says.

Resveratrol might also be used to prevent muscle wasting in the elderly, says David Sinclair at Harvard Medical School in Massachusetts, US, who was not involved in this study.

Previous studies have shown the compound can extend the lifespan of mice by around 15%. And resveratrol is also being used in a clinical trial involving people with diabetes.

Journal reference: Cell (DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2006.11.013)
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xanadu
post Jun 23, 2007, 11:18 AM
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Resveratrol and cancer

http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/phyt...eratrol/#cancer

When added to cells cultured outside the body, resveratrol has been found to inhibit the proliferation of a variety of human cancer cell lines, including those from breast, prostate, stomach, colon, pancreatic and thyroid cancers (2). In animal models, oral administration of resveratrol inhibited the development of esophageal (63), intestinal (64), and mammary (breast) cancer (18, 65) induced by chemical carcinogens. However, oral resveratrol was not effective in inhibiting the development of lung cancer induced by cigarette smoke carcinogens (66, 67), and the effects of oral resveratrol administration on mice that are genetically predisposed to colon cancer have been mixed (68, 69). It is not known whether high intakes of resveratrol can help prevent cancer in humans. Studies on human metabolism of resveratrol suggest that even very high dietary intakes of resveratrol may not result in tissue levels that are high enough to realize most of the protective effects demonstrated in cell culture studies (7, 10).
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xanadu
post Jun 29, 2007, 11:20 AM
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http://www.advance-health.com/redwine.html

The Health Benefits of Red Wine & Resveratrol

There has been a lot of interest in the media about the health benefits of red wine. It isn't the alcohol in the wine that provides a health benefit but the anti-oxidants, the red wine polyphenols, anthrocyanidins and resveratrol.

Resveratrol, in particular, has been demonstrated to be a potent anti-oxidant (about 20-50 times as effectively as vitamin C alone) and act synergistically with vitamin C enhancing the effects of each. Resveratrol has been demonstrated to have an anti-clotting effect that prevents the formation of thrombi or blood clots in the blood vessels. The formation of thrombi that block small blood vessels is believed to be a cause of heart attacks and strokes. Resveratrol has been demonstrated to have anti-cancer effects as well.

The incidence of heart disease and cancer among populations who consume a lot of red wine is dramatically less than those that don't even though they may also have a high fat diet. Resveratrol has also been demonstrated to promote the formation of new dendrites in the brain. Resveratrol and the other bioflavonoids and polyphenols are present in large amounts in the leaves, twigs and bark of the grape vines. Thus, red wine, which is fermented with the skins, seeds, twigs, etc. tends to contain much larger quantities of the beneficial substances than white wine which is fermented only from the pressed juice of the grape.
What About the Alcohol?


I recently had a long discussion with a nutrition expert who is also a wine lover (his family owns one of the large wineries in California) about the health benefits of red wine and the effects of the alcohol in it. After careful consideration, he admitted that there is no documentation or research supporting the idea that alcohol has health benefits. Alcohol, it seems is toxic to the human body and possesses no redeeming merits from a health perspective. When alcohol is consumed, the alcohol level in the blood increases and produces the intoxication effect. The body then begins "detoxifying" or metabolizing the alcohol. The first step is the conversion of alcohol to acetaldehyde by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase. This happens fairly quickly in individuals who regularly consume alcohol. The second step is the conversion of acetaldehyde into acetate by the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase. This process is a bit slower and leaves a quantity of acetaldehyde in the system for several hours or longer. It is the acetaldehyde that produces most of the undesirable toxic effects. The acetate is metabolized to produce energy much like any other carbohydrate. Excess drinking can make you fat just as binging on pasta, ice cream or any other carbohydrate would.
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Lindsay
post Jun 29, 2007, 07:00 PM
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I find the above very interesting for the following reasons:

I am 77, 5' 9', and I weigh 146 pounds, naked. Usually, I have lots of energy.

About a week ago, as part of a routine check-up, I was diagnosed, by my young MD, as having a bit-beyond borderline hypertension--173 over 90, with a normal pulse rate--and a high PSA. He ha recommended I see a urologist, and that I have a colonoscopy.

I confess that, in recent decades, to relax after a hard day's work, I have become too fond of martini's. Because of the recent diagnosis, I have decided to limit my alchol intake to wine--mostly red--and, perhaps, beer.

BTW, Is gin a form of alcohol to be avoided?

I am one who has been relatively healthy all my life--without the use of drugs. During 40 years of ministry I never lost one day due to serious illness.

By the way, though I am not opposed to the use of drugs and surgery, when absolutley needed, I plan to reach 80, and beyond, using the complementary approach. Any suggestions. I am open to all the help I can get.
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xanadu
post Jun 30, 2007, 12:45 PM
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Get that colonoscopy and follow his recommendations. 173 over 90 is not any kind of borderline high BP, it's way way too high. My own BP, measured a couple days ago was 106 over 63. I eat no red meat, take vitamins, minerals and supplements every day. I also take resveratrol. Gin is not going to do you any good. Wine and beer, while not to be consumed in quantity, are less bad and contain some good things. Better yet is get the goodies from food and sups and skip the alky.

A well known preventative for colon cancer is to take a small amount of asprin every day or every other day. I take 1/4 of a 500mg tab 4 times a week. It prevents the precancerous lesions in the intestine that can become cancerous. You have to keep it up for years to get the protectioni. I've been taking it for over 15 years along with a raft of other things. I have a pill splitter I use.
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Lindsay
post Jun 30, 2007, 01:20 PM
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Xan: Thanks for your concern. The good news is that within a few day of dumping the gin my BP went down to the low 130's over 70. One measure was 120 over 63.

Is there some rule about age and BP?

BTW, I have heard about aspirin and BP, but not about aspirin and colon cancer.

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post Jun 30, 2007, 03:49 PM
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QUOTE(xanadu @ Jun 30, 2007, 09:45 PM) *
Get that colonoscopy and follow his recommendations.
The psa (Prostate-specific antigen) level is most often used as an indication of prostate issues, including benign conditions. It is very unreliable and other exams are needed, maybe including your recommended colonoscopy (the colon can allow access to the region close to the prostate for observation of swelling, shape and nodularization).
QUOTE(xanadu @ Jun 30, 2007, 09:45 PM) *
173 over 90 is not any kind of borderline high BP, it's way way too high.
Discuss issues you know something about! This bp is absolutely fine for 77 year old who is otherwise fit.
QUOTE(xanadu @ Jun 30, 2007, 09:45 PM) *
I ... take vitamins, minerals and supplements every day.
With all the other formulation ingredients the supplements contain? Have you looked on the containers and examined ALL of the contents? Maybe you won't be impressed by some of them. I'm sure you'll now tell me you only take those of a natural of especially pure origin.
QUOTE(xanadu @ Jun 30, 2007, 09:45 PM) *
A well known preventative for colon cancer is to take a small amount of asprin every day or every other day.
A bit late if Lindsay has colon issues NOW! And where did you see the evidence that this is a "well known preventative"? At the local soothsayers? The evidence is recent and speculative. And there can be serious side-effects of taking aspirin, not least the fact that even very small doses are known (yes this time KNOWN) to cause gastrointestinal bleeding.
QUOTE(xanadu @ Jun 30, 2007, 09:45 PM) *
It prevents the precancerous lesions in the intestine that can become cancerous. You have to keep it up for years to get the protectioni. I've been taking it for over 15 years along with a raft of other things.
Since the preliminary evidence is only recent your comments are valueless. I would recommend that anyone taking aspirin regularly seek medical advice prior to starting and that they keep an eye on their stools for darkening and/or blood. Seeking medical advice is especially important if you take any other medications as there can be important interactions such as reducing the absorption of certain drugs and dangerously increasing the clotting time.

Lindsay, the colonoscopy might have been advised as one of the exams for prostate issues and not for anything directly related to the colon. Prostate enlargement and other irregularities, and elevated psa are VERY common in men aged 65+ and even if they are associated with cell abnormalities, the development of any disease is often very slow. Have the colonoscopy and listen to your doctor, not hearsay. Good luck with this issue. I'm sure all other members of BrainMeta wish you the same.
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xanadu
post Jul 01, 2007, 11:24 AM
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http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseas...HBP_WhatIs.html

Categories for Blood Pressure Levels in Adults (in mmHg, millimeters of
mercury)a
Category Systolic (top number) Diastolic (bottom number)
Normal Less than 120 Less than 80
Prehypertension 120–139 80–89
High blood pressure
Stage 1 140–159 90–99
Stage 2 160 or higher 100 or higher
a For adults 18 and older who are not on medicine for high blood pressure; are not having a short-term serious illness; and do not have other conditions, such as diabetes and kidney disease.
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Lindsay
post Jul 01, 2007, 05:29 PM
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After reading some of the controversial comments above, I think I will consult an astrologer, okay? biggrin.gif

The following looks like useful information:
http://www.bpassoc.org.uk/information/measured.htm#top
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xanadu
post Jul 02, 2007, 12:21 PM
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Lindsay, here is a quote from the link you gave us

"This level of 140/90 mmHg is the level for high blood pressure for everyone, whether you are male or female, young or old."

So a reading of 173/90 is NOT "absolutely fine for 77 year old" as someone said. It may have been a fluke reading and not been indicative of your true health. If I were you I'd have it checked every week or so to see if that high spike reappears again. I doubt that the gin caused your high BP, it may have been nervousness from being at the doctors office or something. Still, getting off the gin is likely a good thing. Alcohol can lead to heart and circulatory disease.

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Lindsay
post Jul 04, 2007, 09:31 AM
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QUOTE(xanadu @ Jul 02, 2007, 12:21 PM) *

Lindsay, here is a quote from the link you gave us:

"This level of 140/90 mmHg is the level for high blood pressure for everyone, whether you are male or female, young or old."
Again, I thank all of you for your interest. Is there an MD, other than Shawn, in the group? Or are they all too busy. It would be interesting to have an "ASK THE DOCTOR THREAD" EH?

Since my first visit, I have monitored my BP, twice a day, over the past two weeks. Over a ten minute period, I took my blood pressure three times.
==========================================
Interestingly, my first home-taken reading, June 25, was 149/82.
The second was 148/81.
Then, I did some deep breathing and medtation.
My third reading was 137/80
This pattern continued over the next number of days. I did get one as high as 160/83; but they were mostly in the 140's over the 70's. I got several in the 120's over 70's. The morning before I visited my doctor my readings were:
138/76 with a pulse of 67; 132/70 with a pulse of 64 and 125/70 with a pulse of 64.
============================================================
Yesterday, the good news from my doctor was: "You do NOT have high blood pressure. All of your other tests came back on target, except your PSA, which is 9.05. I realize that PSA's are not all that specific, but I suggest a colonscopy, and that you see a urologist, after the summer holidays. I have an appointment for you in September."

BTW, 1, I did cut out the martinis, at least for the nonce. However, I still enjoy my wine and/or beer at the end of the day.

BTW, 2: The first and last time I saw Dr. David --quite a young man--was in 2002, five years ago. I told him then and this time that at 77, I am quite philosophical about dying, but like Woody Allen, I prefer not to be there when it happens. smile.gif

Discovering that he enjoys a joke: I told him about the hypochondriac who asked his psychiatrist: Tell me doctor, do I have an inferior complex? After several sessions, the doctor told the patient: "I am happy to inform you that you do not have a complex; you ARE inferior.

"I don't like that" said the patient, "I want a second opinion."

"Okay" said the psychiatrist, "You are quite a few bricks short of a load. I suggest that you should climb up a tall tree and branch off...You will begin to feel like a maple tree. When this happens, bore a hole in yourself and let the sap run out. If that fails, find a road with a fork. When you do, take it!"

The good doctor laughed and said, "I'll remember that one, and share it."
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xanadu
post Jul 19, 2007, 12:58 PM
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http://www.life-enhancement.com/article_template.asp?ID=1175

Can Resveratrol Help
Prevent Alzheimer’s?
Preventing amyloid-beta neurotoxicity in
laboratory experiments is a promising sign
By Hyla Cass, M.D.

When Brain Is on the Menu

Something else that sucks (aha—the segue) is Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which strikes not boldly or quickly, but nonetheless like a thief in the night, quietly stealing your most precious jewels: your memories, your capabilities, your very personality, and, finally, your life. In cat burglar fashion, AD hits you “upstairs” while your alarm system is off and you’re too busy with life to notice that anything is amiss. By the time you do notice (or your family or friends notice), the damage is done, and you will never again be the same. You are destined to fade away in what Nancy Reagan so poignantly called “the long goodbye.” It’s a story written in tears and sweat for the caregivers, whose own lives are typically shortened by the crushing burdens they must carry.

A striking difference between cat burglary and AD is the fact that the “burglar” in AD doesn’t bother to make a getaway. Instead, he simply settles in upstairs and methodically eats you out of house and home. Certain portions of your brain will slowly be destroyed, resulting in the most conspicuous neuroanatomical hallmark of the disease at autopsy: a massive loss of brain tissue. It’s not a pretty sight (an example can be seen in the article “Galantamine Suppresses Brain-Cell Suicide” in the February 2004 issue).

Amyloid-Beta, Meet Resveratrol

And just who is this audacious burglar with a taste for brain? It’s amyloid-beta, a molecular villain if there ever was one. Amyloid-beta is a small protein molecule (small, that is, by the standards of proteins, which are typically enormous). It constitutes the bulk of the destructive brain deposits called senile plaques, which kill neurons, causing progressive deterioration of memory and other cognitive functions. These plaques, which are extracellular (forming outside the neurons), are also visible at autopsy, albeit only under a microscope. They occur mainly in the hippocampus (the primary locus of memory and learning) and the cerebral cortex. Another pathological feature that can be observed under the microscope is intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, which are twisted, filamentary structures found inside the neurons of the hippocampus and cerebral cortex.


Amyloid-beta deposits (senile plaques) in an Alzheimer’s brain.
Together, senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles wreak biochemical and anatomical havoc in the brains of Alzheimer’s victims. Since the plaques are considered to be the more destructive of the two, a key objective of medical science is to find ways to prevent the formation of amyloid-beta. In the November 2005 issue of Life Enhancement, we published a story ( “Resveratrol Fights Brain Plaque”) describing the efforts of a research team in New York to do just that, using the remarkable plant polyphenol resveratrol (rez-VEER-a-troll), a red-wine-derived compound already celebrated for its role in helping to prevent cancer and cardiovascular disease and, perhaps, to extend lifespan by slowing the aging process.*
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Lindsay
post Aug 24, 2007, 04:29 PM
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AND NOW FOR SOMETHING COMPLETELY DIFFERENT...
Let us get to the bottom of things. Let's talk about the colon and the all-important opening at the bottom, the anus.
QUOTE(xanadu @ Jun 23, 2007, 11:18 AM) *

Resveratrol and cancer
http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/phyt...eratrol/#cancer
When added to cells cultured outside the body, resveratrol has been found to inhibit the proliferation of a variety of human cancer cell lines, including those from breast, prostate, stomach, colon, pancreatic and thyroid cancers....
Warning. Read only if you are not offended by earthy language.

THE STORY
==========
In 1996, I began having problems with my ass...Excuse me, my anus. When I was a peasant I called it, my ass-hole.

To be specific: I had piles. Pardon me, peasants have piles. Being a king, and having h'aristocratic blood, I now say that I had hemorrhoids. Two years after I retired, I began passing bloody stools---ugh!!!. I ass-umed that the culprit was my hemorrhoids--a problem caused by bad eating habits (we need to talk out this.) I tolerated dealing with my pain-in-the-butt, for years.

RECENT CHANGES
================
But recently, with help of my family doctor, one who I value, I decided to do something about it.

She--Yes, sheeee--referred me to--No, it was not Dr. Ben Dova laugh.gif ; it was to Dr. David Arai.

[Offered in good humour.]: I was a little concerned--not really--when I found out that he was of Japanese origin. Scenes from TORA! TORA! TORA! (ATTACK! ... ... ) came to mind. So did the slogan, "Remember Pearl Harbour" come to mind smile.gif ( I remind you that I also have many American cousins, you know).

However, when I found out that Dr. David Arai was actually a native-born Canadian, it made me feel a lot better. After all, we Candians, you know, are great believers in the art of compromise, eh? And, above all, we agree with the dictum: "Do no harm." I had the feeling that Dr. Arai would not: ATTACK ... etc.

MORE GOOD NEWS
================
Meanwhile, I spoke to one who is still a friend of mine, an advocate of holistic health. He reminded me of something I had looked into, years ago, but did not study in detail: the value of enzymes, and the like. When I told him what I "faced" he said: "You know, you need to take enzymes and the like. They will help you heal, if you need surgery. A colon needs enzymes to be healthy..." When I expressed an interest, he went on, and on, and on...

I said, " I give up, OK? But I will only do so, if my surgeon agrees.
Which, BTW, to my relief, he did.

THE SURGERY
=============
Following the hemorrhoidectomy, Dr. Arai said: "I removed your hemorrhoid, which, as I suspected, was not the source of the bleeding. Then I removed two polyps. One was cancerous; it was the source of the bleeding. The good news is: You will not need a colonectomy and a bag, at this time.

Here is what I suggest: This is June; so take the summer to heal. Then I would like to see you, in September, when, to make sure we can get rid of all the cancer, I will remove ten inches of your small intestine. Meanwhile, eat a roughage diet--I agree that you can include the enzymes of which you spoke--and lots of veggies--and we will do another colonoscopy, in September. Then we will decide what to do next. Keep in mind that this is major surgery.

THE GOOD NEWS WAS
===================
I spent the summer visiting my daughter--a drugless therapist herself--on the west coast of Vancouver Island, Tofino. With her interest in herbs and the like, she was very helpful.

After this, the good news was: Come September, I had another colonoscopy, following which the good surgeon told me: It seems that major surgery is unecessary. It seems that what you did during the summer helped heal things. I found that your colon is clean and healed. Case closed.

If you have any problems in the next while, let me know.

I thanked him, sincerely, for his healing help. At the time, I was sixty six. I am now seventy seven. Since then I have been a constant user of enzymes and other, what I call, pro-biotics--such as lactobasilis-salavarius--and the like.
=================
BTW, fellow posters. recently, and shortly after I read about the information I found in this thread, I received an order of Resveratrol. I got it from the same source I get my enzymes and other pro-biotics: www.rgarden.com whose products I have been using since 1996. For more information, get in touch.
==========================000000000000000000000===========================
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Enki
post Aug 25, 2007, 06:39 AM
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Very interesting info Mr. Lindsay. So it works.

Where it can be located except red wine? I mean in something eatable and not expensive?

I heard about chocolate. But I have other specific info about the chocolate ... that is why do anyone knows something else?
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Lindsay
post Aug 25, 2007, 01:22 PM
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Enki, I forgot to mention the latest good news: Just last Wednesday, I had my most recent colonoscopy. Completly clean! The doctor told me: "See me in five years; in your condition, you could live to be one hundred."

In response, I said: "Doc, I want a second opinion."

"Okay". he said, with a smile.gif "You will live to be one hundred and one." I said: "If I don't, I won't pay your bill!" laugh.gif

FREE INFORMATION AVAILABLE
==========================
BTW, I invite anyone--who is really interested in more details about what I did--to feel free to e-mail, or send me a PM.

BTW 2, For a modest cost, Rgarden has some basic literature available about the nature and function of enzymes, salavarius, etc.
=============================
Rgarden Resveratrol Complex contains:
Red Wine Extract
Grape Seed Extract
Pine Bark Extract
Amylase
Lipase
Resvinol

=========
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Enki
post Sep 09, 2007, 11:58 AM
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Excellent. My congratulations.

I made an experiment with red wine and it works!
Now I undestand why Noah first planted vineyard when came out of the Arc. smile.gif
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Lindsay
post Sep 09, 2007, 12:05 PM
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QUOTE(Enki @ Sep 09, 2007, 11:58 AM) *

Excellent. My congratulations.

I made an experiment with red wine and it works!
Now I undestand why Noah first planted vineyard when came out of the Arc. smile.gif
I am sure all readers, here, would like to know: What was the experiment?

BTW, If Noah's wife was named Joan, would that make her Joan of Arc? biggrin.gif

BTW 2: Now that I have my digestive and my cardio vascular systems--including my blood pressure--working with me, my next goal is to deal with a relatively high PSA (prostate specific antigens) reading. Once again I plan to use a method designed to strengthen the immune system, not just to supress symtoms.

Once again I am happy to report that I have a family physician who respects that patients have the right to be part of the healing team. He and the specialists, to whom he has referred me, all agree that the integrative approach to the practice of the healing arts is a valid one.

Medical science can be very helpful in making a diagnosis of the problem; but in the final analysis, the total health of patients requires more than the taking of drugs and the use of surgery. It requires that we patients take personal care of what we eat, physically, mentally and spiritually.
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Enki
post Sep 09, 2007, 12:15 PM
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QUOTE(Lindsay @ Sep 09, 2007, 12:05 PM) *

QUOTE(Enki @ Sep 09, 2007, 11:58 AM) *

Excellent. My congratulations.

I made an experiment with red wine and it works!
Now I undestand why Noah first planted vineyard when came out of the Arc. smile.gif
I am presume we are all curious: What was the experiment?

BTW, was Noah's wife named Joan; Joan of Arc? biggrin.gif


I was eating much and drinking good red wine. The metabolism was fast I was not gaining in kilograms. Fantastic!

Hahahah, maybe. smile.gif
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post Jan 22, 2008, 08:49 AM
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Lindsay
post Jan 22, 2008, 02:55 PM
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I repeat
QUOTE
Medical science can be very helpful in making a diagnosis of the problem; but in the final analysis, the total health of patients requires more than the taking of drugs and the use of surgery. It requires that we patients take personal care of what we eat, physically, mentally and spiritually.
I totally agree. Recently, I turned 78 (January 14). When I visited my urologist for a check up, I was pleasantly surprised:
He did not prescribe a drug. He recommended a complementary supplement that I can get at my health-food store.
Check out http://www.bioadvantex.com
QUOTE
Pharma develops nutritional solutions that complement traditional medical management by physicians. BioAdvantex Pharma supports research for the role of nutrition in maintaining a quality and healthy life. Recognizing the compelling data that exists for nutritional supplementation BioAdvantex Pharma created a product line that helps support a healthy life. Our credo is to provide helpful, healthful information and offer high quality products, while encouraging an open dialogue between the patient and the physician.
Anyone, feel free to send me a PM and we can compare prices on what it is costing us for products which help keep us healthy.
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charlesclemens
post Apr 17, 2008, 03:23 AM
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I've been taking Resveratrol from two month and have good experience as an increase in available energy. Resveratrol works well & allows me to walk farther, workout longer, and has really helped to curb hunger. Resveratrol is naturally created by certain vines, pine trees, peanuts, grapes, and other plants. Resveratrol, an active ingredient of red wine extracts, has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective effects in several experimental models. Resveratrol is known to be protective against oxidative cardiovascular disorders. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear.
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