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> Brazil!, Some history
Lolly
post Jun 06, 2006, 07:07 AM
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I just LOVE Brazil!

Heres some history!




Brazil is the only Latin American nation that derives its language and culture from Portugal. The native inhabitants mostly consisted of the nomadic Tupí-Guaraní Indians. Adm. Pedro Alvares Cabral claimed the territory for Portugal in 1500. The early explorers brought back a wood that produced a red dye, pau-brasil, from which the land received its name. Portugal began colonization in 1532 and made the area a royal colony in 1549.

During the Napoleonic Wars, King João VI, fearing the advancing French armies, fled Portugal in 1808 and set up his court in Rio de Janeiro. João was drawn home in 1820 by a revolution, leaving his son as regent. When Portugal tried to reimpose colonial rule, the prince declared Brazil's independence on Sept. 7, 1822, becoming Pedro I, emperor of Brazil. Harassed by his Parliament, Pedro I abdicated in 1831 in favor of his five-year-old son, who became emperor in 1840 (Pedro II). The son was a popular monarch, but discontent built up, and in 1889, following a military revolt, he abdicated. Although a republic was proclaimed, Brazil was ruled by military dictatorships until a revolt permitted a gradual return to stability under civilian presidents.

President Wenceslau Braz cooperated with the Allies and declared war on Germany during World War I. In World War II, Brazil again cooperated with the Allies, welcoming Allied air bases, patrolling the South Atlantic, and joining the invasion of Italy after declaring war on the Axis powers.

After a military coup in 1964, Brazil had a series of military governments. Gen. João Baptista de Oliveira Figueiredo became president in 1979 and pledged a return to democracy in 1985. The election of Tancredo Neves on Jan. 15, 1985, the first civilian president since 1964, brought a nationwide wave of optimism, but when Neves died several months later, Vice President José Sarney became president. Collor de Mello won the election of late 1989, pledging to lower hyperinflation with free-market economics. When Collor faced impeachment by Congress because of a corruption scandal in Dec. 1992 and resigned, Vice President Itamar Franco assumed the presidency.

A former finance minister, Fernando Cardoso, won the presidency in the Oct. 1994 election with 54% of the vote. Cardoso sold off inefficient government-owned monopolies in the telecommunications, electrical power, port, mining, railway, and banking industries.

In Jan. 1999, the Asian economic crisis spread to Brazil. Rather than prop up the currency through financial markets, Brazil opted to let the currency float, which sent the real plummeting—at one time as much as 40%. Cardoso was highly praised by the international community for quickly turning around his country's economic crisis. Despite his efforts, however, the economy continued to slow throughout 2001, and the country also faced an energy crisis. The IMF offered Brazil an additional aid package in Aug. 2001. And in Aug. 2002, to ensure that Brazil would not be dragged down by neighboring Argentina's catastrophic economic problems, the IMF agreed to lend Brazil a phenomenal $30 billion over fifteen months.

In Jan. 2003, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, a former trade union leader and factory worker widely known by the name Lula, became Brazil's first working-class president. As leader of Brazil's only Socialist party, the Workers' Party, Lula pledged to increase social services and improve the lot of the poor. But he also recognized that a distinctly non-socialist program of fiscal austerity was needed to rescue the economy. The president's first major legislative success was a plan to reform the country's debt-ridden pension system, which operated under an annual $20 billion deficit. Civil servants staged massive strikes opposing this and other reforms. Although public debt and inflation remained a problem in 2004, Brazil's economy showed signs of growth and unemployment was down. Polls in Aug. 2004 demonstrated that the majority of Brazilians supported Lula's tough economic reform efforts.

In 2005, an unfolding bribery scandal weakened Lula's administration and led to the resignation of several high government officials. Lula issued a televised apology in August, and promised “drastic measures” to reform the political system.




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cerebral
post Jun 06, 2006, 09:29 AM
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that's great info
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Hey Hey
post Jun 06, 2006, 02:08 PM
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ref:

http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107357.html
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cerebral
post Jun 06, 2006, 02:09 PM
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thanks Hey Hey
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Lolly
post Jun 07, 2006, 08:57 AM
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11 GREATEST BRAZILIAN ARTISTS OF ALL TIME

This list is based on my perception, considering only two factors: popularity and influence. I would like to be able to consider technical merit, but the sad truth is that I don't have what it takes.

Here they are: (not in any particular order of importance)

1. Camoes
The Shakespeare of Portugal, the Dante of lusitan culture, the Cervantes from Lisbon. All Portuguese language literature is indebted to Camoes. He is the defining writer on all luso-Brazilian literary endeavors. Most memorable line (referring to the Portuguese language): Utlimo flor do lacio, inculta e bela (last flower of latin, unknown and beautiful). Of course, Camoes is not Brazilian, but Brazilian literature is Camoes.

2. Goncalves Dias
How do I describe Goncalves Dias. It is like Longfellow meets Frost. His is the most beautiful verse in Brazilian poetry, by far.

3. Mario de Andrade
Because of his influence on all modern art, Andrade is an easy choice for this list. His works are difficult and obscure, but mark a break from the romanticism and classical tradition followed by all writers until the early 20th century. Most famous work: Macunaima. A good school project would be to get a bunch of gringos in a room, show the film version and ask them what it is all about.

4. Jorge Amado
The best known and most popular writer in Brazil. His novels portray common people and their everyday problems. How many American writers would focus on a Turk storekeeper named Nacib and a maid, as in Gabriela. The only small thing I have against Amado is the picture of him hugging Joseph Stalin, taken in the early 50s. Obviously, Jorge Amado's sympathy for the downtrodden does not extend to the 20-30 million murdered by his communist friend and hero.

5. Carmen Miranda
Carmen is another artist that must be put on a list such as this. Born in Portugal, she embodies the spirit of Brazil in the 1930s and 40s. It is more than just the movies, the music and the dances. The only way to compare Carmen to any American artist would be to put Mae West, Judy Garland and Betty Gable into one body. Going to Hollywood was her biggest triumph and tragedy. She went to the US with nothing but her talent, made it big, and returned in a coffin a dozen years later. I only wish she had not been so stereotyped in her pictures, and that the "Brazilian" scenes had not been filmed with so many Mexican style backgrounds and costumes.

6. Chico Buarque and Caetano Veloso
These two could be listed separately, or together. Nobody else represents contemporary MPB (Popular Brazilian Music) like these guys. They have music and feeling. The lyrics are as good as the music. Their influence is greater than any other living song writers. Sent into exile by the Military regime in the 70s, they were a voice of hope to millions wanting a democratic nation. Like Jorge Amado, Chico thinks a person doesn't count if killed or persecuted by his Communist buddies.

7. Roberto Carlos
The last of the great romantics. His popularity is unmatched in all groups and ages of society. Not a great voice, but for 30 some years he was defined "romantic" music in Brazil. He is one of those few people crowned with the "Rei" title, along with other "kings" such as Pele and Luiz Gonzaga. His name is rarely mentioned when talking about MPB (Musica Popular Brasileira), which is for some reason usually associated with Chico, Caetano, Gil, Milton, etc...

8. Erico Verissimo
Verissimo is in a class by himself, not only because of his literary production, but also for his ability to explain Brazilan writing. His 1945 book, Brazilian Literature, is one of the best general resources for those interested in the topic. He is able to explain in simple language how and why things happened.
9. Carlos Drummond de Andrade
10. Heitor Villa-Lobos
Villa-lobos was Brazil's most famous composer. His formal musical training was scanty, but he traveled widely through Brazil, absorbing folklore and popular music. Befriended by the pianist Arthur Rubinstein, who played his music in the United States and Europe, Villa-Lobos was able to spend the years from 1923 to 1930 in Europe, living primarily in Paris. A prolific composer, his best-known works are the 9 Bachianas Brasileiras (1930-45) and the 14 Choros (1920-28), written for a wide range of performance media, from solo guitar to full orchestra, band, and chorus. All are strongly imbued with Brazilian color.

11. Candido Portinari
Partinari (1903 - 1962) is the most widely recognized of Brazil's painters. He introduced many of the ideas and trends of modern painting in Brazil. After studying art in Rio de Janeiro he traveled (1928) to Europe. Returning to his native country, he dedicated his art to the depiction of Brazilian life in a modern yet distinctly Brazilian manner, often emphasizing gauchos (cowboys) and city workers. His early (1930s) paintings of men and women show Picasso's influence. Portinari is well known for his many murals, including the works War and Peace presented (1955) to the United Nations building in New York City.

12. Antonio Carlos Jobim.
If this list were in order of importance and talent, Jobim would have been up on top with Carmen. Nobody did music like Jobim. He had the rare ability to find the right words and put them to the right tune.





Ref:http://www.brazilbrazil.com/artists.html
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Hey Hey
post Jun 07, 2006, 10:21 AM
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one of good friends is Brazilian (well two actually, he and his wife). so i've had an education about Brazil. lots, but lots of good and bad. a must go to country. thanks for posting the information above.
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Lolly
post Jun 07, 2006, 12:36 PM
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QUOTE(Hey Hey @ Jun 07, 10:21 AM) *

one of good friends is Brazilian (well two actually, he and his wife). so i've had an education about Brazil. lots, but lots of good and bad. a must go to country. thanks for posting the information above.



Oh Yeah!
Brazil is awesome!
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Lolly
post Jun 07, 2006, 12:37 PM
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ELEMENTS OF BRAZILIAN CULTURE
Brazil is part of Latin America - more or less - yes and no. It is part of Latin American, but it is different.

In the United States, when we hear "hispanic" or "latin american" we think of the Spanish language and countries such as Mexico, Porto Rico, Cuba and El Salvador.

Brazilians consider themselves as distinct from other latin societies as they consider the Americans to be. They pride themselves in being different from all other countries in the new world. Because their language, ethnic composition and history is very different from other latin countries, they consider themselves to be cousins and not brothers in the Latin American history and development.

While Brazil shares many common traits with Mexico, Columbia, Argentina and other latin countries, it is also unique in many ways, and is people have their own behavioral patterns not found in other countries, including the United States. These differences can astound Americans, or sometimes just hopefully cause quiet amusement.

BEHAVIORAL STEREOTYPES
Stereotypes can be good or bad. They are useful when used to classify a broad range of habits or characteristics found in a group of people. They should not, in my opinion, be applied indiscriminately to individuals, because they will often be incorrect.

One component of the Brazilian stereotypes is that the Brazilian is always late. Most Americans consider themselves punctual, especially in relation to other cultures. Americans like to concentrate on one thing at a time and so to schedule events individually, the time is organized into small units and they concern themselves with tight schedules and they are called "monochronics". Brazilians in other hand are recognized as "polychronics" because they are described as late arrivers, allowed greater flexibility in defining early and late, and the polychronic systems are characterized by several things happening at the same time. Working time can be intercalated with enjoyment, at least, the weather even does not present deep changes. Of course not all Brazilian are always late. Some are as punctual as the Americans. But Brazil is a tropical country, and time is always slower in the tropics, so we tell ourselves.

Most American prefer to do things by themselves if possible. Brazilian always ask favors of friends, especially of close friends, but also acquaintances. When one Brazilian refuses to do a favor to someone several possible answer can be said such as: - I have a test and I must study now, but if you do not find someone else, call me. Because the concern for human feelings and human relations makes the refusing of favors difficult, some Brazilians agree to do a favor even though circumstances make their performance of it impossible. In other hand Americans in this kind of situation say: - I would like to but... I can not. It is easier to say "NO" and so the person does not feel bad refusing of favor. These contrasting perceptions and values show clearly the differences between Americans and Brazilians.

FAMILY and FRIENDS
The Brazilian family network is much larger than in North America. Family comes first than others things. Family means parents, children, cousins, aunts, uncles, spouses, husbands and the generation of the family. Children and adults remain at home until marriage, and after marriage, they make frequent visits home - at least a week if possible. Most of Brazilians feel a strong sense of helping family members in any way possible. On Sundays it is the special moment of the week to have the lunch together and also to invite friends for sharing food and friendship. Unfortunately, in the United States the family is dissolving gradually. The children leave their house in general about age seventeen to study in other places and have their own independent lives and the family is in second plane. The future and success come first.

These are things an American must learn if he lives in Brazil. The same is true for a Brazilian living in this country. In my opinion, a personal or family that moves to this country has to respect the local culture and has the responsibility to become a productive member of society. To do this, he or she must break down cultural and communication barriers and assimilate, to a certain degree, American culture.

This does not mean giving up your original culture or turning you back on your native country or language. It is adding to them and enriching them with American language and culture.



Ref:http://www.brazilbrazil.com/elements.html
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Rick
post Jun 07, 2006, 12:49 PM
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Nobel Laureat physicist Richard Feynman used to travel frequently to Brazil to enjoy its culture. He played a drum in one of the street bands.
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Denise RSO
post Jul 15, 2006, 02:18 PM
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Hi Lolly! I am so impressed by your knowledge and passion about my country! I come from Brazil, Rio de Janeiro! This info you put up here is wonderful! Thank you for loving my country like this! What is your favorite part of Brazil?
The South is different from the North, which again is different from the South-East and they all differ from the North-Eastern Brazil. The variety of different cultural traits, mostly kept and passed on by different sub-colonies once inhabiting Brazil - and now still a bit present- (Austrians, Italians, Germans, Dutch etc) and the pure African and Indigenous culture create such a nice flowing mix!
I love Rio, but again, that is my hometown. I also like the South - it goes back to my roots. But NOTHING like carnival in Salvador, North-East Brazil!!
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