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> Pyritinol Research, Clinical Studies
LifeMirage
post Mar 07, 2006, 09:41 AM
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Pyritinol In Healthy People

Neuropsychobiology 1990-91;24(3):159-64
Psychopharmacological effects of pyritinol in normal volunteers.


Hindmarch I, Coleston DM, Kerr JS. HPRU, Robens Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.

12 healthy male volunteers received pyritinol 600 or 1,200 mg or placebo for 3 days according to a randomised, double-blind crossover design. On the 1st and 3rd days of each of the 3 treatment periods subjects completed a battery of psychological tests including Critical Flicker Fusion (CFFT), Choice Reaction Time (CRT), tests of memory and subjective drug effects at 1, 2, 4 and 6 h after dosing. Significant improvements in CFFT and CRT were found after pyritinol. There were no significant differences on the other tests; however, the observed enhancement in performance could be attributed to the effect of the drug.
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LifeMirage
post Mar 07, 2006, 09:43 AM
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Pyritinol In Dementia

Neuropsychobiology 1992;26(1-2):65-70
Therapeutic efficacy of pyritinol in patients with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT) and multi-infarct dementia (MID).

Fischhof PK, Saletu B, Ruther E, Litschauer G, Moslinger-Gehmayr R, Herrmann WM. Psychiatric Hospital Baumgartner Hohe, Vienna, Austria.

This trial was performed to investigate the efficacy of pyritinol in the treatment of senile dementia. Initially, a total of 183 inpatients were screened for eligibility. Of 164 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 156 completed the trial. Allocation of the patients to the Senile Dementia of the Alzheimer Type group or the Multi-Infarct Dementia group was based on the Hachinski Ischemic Score, computed tomography scans and electroencephalographic (EEG) findings. In a 12-week double-blind treatment phase either 200 mg pyritinol dihydrochloride-monohydrate or placebo was given 3 times daily. Confirmatory statistics included item 2 of the Clinical Global Impression, the total score of the Short Cognitive Performance Test (Syndrom Kurz Test) and the factor 'cognitive disturbances' of the Sandoz Clinical Assessment Geriatric scale. In addition, data on tolerance, of EEG brain mapping and of a responder analysis were evaluated based on descriptive statistics. The therapeutic efficacy of pyritinol was clearly demonstrated by confirmatory analysis, as the drug was statistically significantly superior to placebo in all 3-target variables. The clinical relevance of the outcome was underlined by the analysis of the descriptive variables and by the convergence found at the different observation levels. The EEG mapping demonstrated significant differences between placebo and pyritinol, with the latter decreasing slow and increasing fast alpha and beta activity, which reflects improvement of vigilance. Based on the results of this trial, it can be accepted that the therapeutic effect of pyritinol is superior to placebo in patients with mild to moderate dementia of both degenerative and vascular etiology.


Clin Psychopharmacol 1989 Jan;4(1):25-38
Pyritinol treatment of SDAT patients: evaluation by psychiatric and neurological examination, psychometric testing and rCBF measurements.

Knezevic S, Mubrin Z, Risberg J, Vucinic G, Spilich G, Gubarev N, Wannenmacher W. Department of Neurology, University Hospital Centre, Zagreb, Yugoslavia.

A group of 26 patients with the diagnosis of Senile Dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT) was included by random assignment in a double-blind, cross-over trial of pyritinol versus placebo. The patients had a mild to moderate degree of dementia. Psychiatric and neurological examination, psychometric testing, and measurement of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) at rest and during mental activation were used to assess treatment effects. The results of the study showed that pyritinol was associated with a significant improvement in cognitive performance. RCBF data showed that treatment with pyritinol normalized the pattern of blood flow increase during activation and improved the score on the test used for activation.


Pharmatherapeutica 1980;2(5):317-22
A placebo-controlled study of pyritinol ('Encephabol') in dementia.

Cooper AJ, Magnus RV.

A double blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out on 40 patients suffering from moderately advanced dementia. The patients were allocated randomly either pyritinol (800 mg daily) or identical placebo for 3 months. Assessments using a modified Crichton Geriatric Behavioral Rating Scale were made pre-treatment and monthly up to 3 months, and then at follow-up at 6 months. Patients on pyritinol showed significantly higher levels of improvement than did those on placebo. Laboratory tests conducted throughout remained within normal limits for both groups.


Alzheimer's Research, 1996; 2(3):79-84
Efficacy of Pyritinol versus Hydergine upon cognitive performance in patients with Senile Dementia of the Alzheimer's type: A double-blind multi-center trial.

George J. Spilich, Wolfgang Wannenmacher, Antonio Duarte, Marco Buendia, J. Toro G�mez, Sergio Ramirez, Amalia Anaya, and Enrique Otero.

In this multi-center trial, 100 patients with the diagnosis of Senile Dementia of the Alzheimer's type (SDAT) of mild to moderate severity were randomly divided into two treatment groups and, following a placebo wash-out phase, were administered either pyritinol or hydergine for 12 weeks in a double-blind, randomized parallel comparison. Two measures of cognitive functioning were employed to assess treatment effects. The results indicated that treatment with pyritinol was associated with a significant and continuous improvement in cognitive functioning over the course of the study while treatment with hydergine was associated with a more modest improvement that tended to plateau early in the treatment phase. We interpret our results to indicate that treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease with pyritinol is more likely to result in an improvement in cognitive performance than is a similar course of treatment with hydergine. Our results also suggest that continued treatment with pyritinol is often accompanied by continued improvement in cognitive function, while treatment effects with hydergine are mostly limited to those observed in the initial 6 weeks of intervention.
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LifeMirage
post Mar 07, 2006, 09:46 AM
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Pyritinol In Children


Pediatr Res 1975 Sep;9(9):717-21
Pyritinol hydrochloride and cognitive functions: influence on children in slow learner classes.


Walti U, Kuenzler M, Schild J, Vassella F, Pavlincova E, Bircher J, Herschkowitz N.

Pyritinol-HCl was tested for its impact on the cognitive functions of children with learning disabilities. This study is a contribution to scientific discussion on the complicated methodologic problems in evaluating the clinical efficacy of psychopharmacologic agents. 67 pupils of slow learner classes between the ages of 11 and 16 years were treated for 6 months with 300 mg pyritinol-HCl/24 hr or placebo under strict double-blind conditions. Drug intake was stimulated and controlled by means of intense psychosocial interaction with the mothers of the subjects. The dependence variables used to test medication effects were 22 parameters of cognitive performance measured in psychologic tests for perceptual and intellectual functions that were administered immediately before and after the medication phase. First the gainscores before and after treatment with pyritinol or placebo within the 22 cognitive parameters were statistically compared. In addition, an analysis of covariance on the corrected results of the second test (treating the results of first testing as covariates) and a two group discriminant analysis for overall differences were performed. None of the 22 parameters showed statistically significant treatment effects with respect to average performance (t (pyritinol - placebo) = 1.96 to 1.31), neither could the two groups be separated by discriminant analysis (Hotelling's T2 = 35.4, df - 22 and 43, P = 0.465). With respect to a variability of gainscores, however, in four parameters there was a significantly higher variance in the pyritinol group (F = 1.85-2.33, P less than 0.05, less than 0.02, respectively). This fact may signify that pyritinol-HCl had different effects on different subjects. By means of prognostic stratification we therefore attempted to define objective criteria for a selection of subjects with probable positive treatment effects. None of the 15 tested criteria, such as body weight, age, perceptual handicaps, or reduced short term memory, IQ range, proved, however, to be critical for a prognosis of pyritinol effects within the present test population.


Cs.pediat. (Czechoslovakia), 1974, 29/10 (562-564)
Neurologic Diseases in Children


41 patients (28 boys & 13 girls) with various diseases of the central nervous system were treated by oral administration of pyritinol in addition to the usual therapy. Before, during and after termination of treatment, neurological, psychological and EEG examinations were made to evaluate the effect of pyritinol. The patients were divided into 4 main groups. In severe contusions of the skull with apallic syndrome (9), improvement was recorded in the majority, & marked improvement in one-third. In meningoencephalitis (8), treatment was successful in half the patients; in infantile cerebral palsy and malformations on the brain (19), treatment was successful in about one-third of cases. In minor disorders of the brain (5), the effect was smallest. According to these results, pyritinol treatment offers a certain contribution to treatment used in pediatric neurological practice.


J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol 1983;27(4):373-80
Brain maldevelopment and delayed neuro-behavioural deviations, induced by perinatal insults, and possibilities of their prevention.


Benesova O.

Noxious insults interfering perinatally lead to disorganization of normal perinatal brain development characterized by growth acceleration and intensive histogenesis and known as a sensitive "vulnerable" period of CNS development. Thus induced abnormities, sometimes very discrete, give rise to functional pathology that becomes apparent gradually during maturation as neurobehavioural deviations. For the study of these pathogenetic processes, two experimental models were established. Rat was chosen as an advantageous model animal since the "brain growth spurt" occurring in man in the third trimester of gravidity is shifted postnatally in this altricial species. Prolonged neonatal malnutrition (days 1-40) lead in adult rats to behavioural abnormities (hyperactivity, stereotypy, decreased adaptability, aggressivity) associated with biochemical and electrophysiological alterations in the brain. But this multifactorial and long-term insult was not suitable for more precise analysis. Therefore short-term inhibition of protein synthesis was induced in 7-day-old rats by cycloheximide that resulted in delayed behavioural deviations (hyperactivity, decreased habituation, learning deficit, motor incoordination) connected with permanent morphological, biochemical and endocrinological alterations. These models were used for testing brain maldevelopment-regulatory action of nootropics. Pyritinol administered for 7-10 days following the noxious intervention prevented the brain maldevelopment and functional disturbances in both experimental models. Favourable effects of early and long-term pyritinol treatment on neuro-psycho-pathological sequels of perinatal distress were confirmed in clinical controlled prospective study of 128 high-risk newborns.
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LifeMirage
post Dec 23, 2008, 11:53 AM
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Pyritinol improves tardive dyskinesia in double-blind cross-over placebo-controlled trial

European Neuropsychopharmacology, Volume 5, Issue 3, September 1995, Page 390
M. Marsalek, M. Petrovsky and J. Klaschka

Pyritinol (former chemical name pyrthioxme) is a scavenger of free radicals and central cholinomimetic agent (Bene{ov& Krej~i, and Pavlik, 1991). Its therapeutic efficacy in tardive dyskinesia (TD) was tested in a 12-week double-blind cross-over placebo-controlled trial. To our knowledge, pyritinol was used in the treatment of TD for the first time Pyritinol (600 mg/day perorally) or placebo were administered for the 6 weeks after a one-week single-blind placebo period. The next 6 weeks the medication was reversed. The neuroleptic dosage was kept constant for the whole trial. 12 of seventeen psychiatric inpatients (5 men and 7 women, 11 diagnosed as schizophrenia and 1 as schizoaffective psychosis according to DS M-Ill-R) compteted the trial. The withdrawal of 5 patients was unrelated to the experimental therapy, Mean age (~:SD) of the patients group was 55,1 9:13.8 years. TD was assessed from videotape by two independent raters, using the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS). Pyritinol was significantly better than placebo in improving TD as measured by the total score of the AIMS [ANOVA, df = 2; F = 5.20; P = 0.01). Simpson and Angus Rating Scale for Extrapyramidal Side Effects, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and Structured Adverse Effects Rating Scale (SARS) did not detect any treatment emergent symptoms on 5% level of significance Our results support both hypotheses on the importance of free radicals (Cadet et al, 1986) and central chorinergic hypofunction (Klawans. 1973) in TD development.


References
Bene~ov~, O, Krei~i, I, Pavl~k, A (1991} Nootropic drugs Avicenum, Prague, 47-49 Cadet, J L. Lohr. J B. Jeste, D. M (1986} Free radicals and tardive dyskinesia Trends Neurosci , 9, 1986. 107 108 Klawans, H L (1973) The pharmacology of tardive dyskinesias Amer J Psychiatry 130, 82-86
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