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> Piracetam Research, From A-Z
LifeMirage
post Mar 04, 2006, 10:58 PM
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Piracetam In ADHD

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova. 2004;104(3):32-7.
Therapeutic efficacy of nootropil different doses in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.


Zavadenko NN, Suvorinova SIu.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most common cause of behavioral and learning problems in childhood. Therapeutic efficiency of nootropil (piracetam) in two different doses has been evaluated in the open control study of 80 children with ADHD, 70 boys and 10 girls, aged 6-11 years, being divided into 3 groups. Two groups received nootropil, as a monotherapy, for a month: 1st group (30 patients)--in the dosage of 70 mg/kg daily and 2nd group (30 patients)--40 mg/kg daily orally. The control group of 20 patients did not receive any treatment. All children were examined twice with one month interval. A procedure of assessment included of structured questionnaire to parents, neurological examination with scored evaluation of subtle signs and psychological testing. Nootropil therapy in ADHD children resulted in the improvement of behavioral characteristics, motor coordination as well as continuous, selective and divided attention. A response rate was 60% in patients received 70 mg/kg of nootropil and 43% for nootropil dosage of 40 mg/kg. The results of the study suggest more considerable positive therapeutic effects of nootropil higher dose on behavioral, motor and attention characteristics in children with ADHD.


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LifeMirage
post Mar 04, 2006, 11:34 PM
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Piracetam In Age Related Mental Decline

Orv Hetil 2002 May 19;143(20):1129-33
Effects of piracetam on the cognitive functions verified by electrophysiologic methods


Kondakor I. Pecsi Tudomanyegyetem, Neurologiai Klinika, Pecs.

The well-known psychoactive drug widely used in the daily clinical praxis, the piracetam has many therapeutical indications. The drug is extensively applied in the therapy of ischaemic stroke, aphasy as well as of dementias of several origins and age-depending cognitive disturbances. One of the most important effect of piracetam is the positive effect to the cognitive functions. In this publication the author reviews the most important studies, where significant effects of piracetam (chronic or single-dose treatment) were verified by means of electrophysiological methods. These studies proved objectively the positive psychoactive and cognitive effects of the drug, supporting the therapeutical indication of piracetam in such cases, where cognitive deficits are present.


Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2002;13(4):217-24
Clinical efficacy of piracetam in cognitive impairment: a meta-analysis.


Waegemans T, Wilsher CR, Danniau A, Ferris SH, Kurz A, Winblad B. Research and Development, UCB SA (Pharma Sector), Braine-l'Alleud, Belgium.

A meta-analysis has been performed including 19 double blind, placebo controlled studies with piracetam in patients suffering from dementia or cognitive impairment in the elderly. These studies had as common outcome measure a clinical global impression of change, a measure of clinically meaningful improvement. The meta-analysis of this global outcome followed the methodology set forward by the Cochrane Collaboration. This article describes the studies, the patient populations and the methods of data extraction. The results of the meta-analysis demonstrate a difference between those individuals treated with piracetam and those given placebo, both as significant odds ratio and as a favourable number needed to treat. While there may be problems in meta-analyses and the interpretation of the statistical results, the results of this analysis provide compelling evidence for the global efficacy of piracetam in a diverse group of older subjects with cognitive impairment.


Presse Med 1997 Sep 6;26(25):1186-91
Combined therapies in family practice and hospitals. A controlled clinical study of a population of 162 patients with criteria of age-related memory disorders


Israel L, Myslinski M, Dubos G, Melac M. Institut de Psychologie, Universite Lumiere Lyon II, Bron.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the combination of drug and cognitive therapy on age-associated memory impairment (AAMI). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A double-blind randomized trial was performed involving 162 patients with age-associated memory impairment selected and followed by their general practitioners. Two intervention methods-a drug and a cognitive therapy-were assessed in combination. Three randomized parallel groups of 54 patients each, aged 55 years and over, were followed and treated for 3 months. After a placebo washout period of 10 days, one group received 2.4 g of piracetam, another group, 4.8 g and the third, a placebo. RESULTS: A total of 135 patients, 45 in each group, completed the study. Combined therapy was most effective in patients whose baseline performance on memory tests was lowest. The best results were observed with piracetam combined with memory training. This result confirmed by the global impression of the principal investigator was in agreement with findings of previous double-blind placebo-controlled trials assessing the combined effect of drug treatment and memory training. CONCLUSION: This result confirmed by the global impression of the principal investigator was in agreement with findings of previous double-blind placebo-controlled trials assessing the combined effect of drug treatment and memory training.


Life Sci 1994;55(25-26):2057-66
Interaction between psychological and pharmacological treatment in cognitive impairment.


Deberdt W. UCB Pharma, Chemin du Foriest, Braine-l'Alleud, Belgium.

In contrast to other kinds of psychotropic drugs, Nootropics or cognition enhancing drugs may be indicated, not for the direct treatment of the pathology itself, but for improving or restoring the remaining brain functions. Brain functions are normally trained during various kinds of non-medical therapy, such as physiotherapy, speech therapy, occupational therapy, memory training etc... In research little attention has been paid to the combination of both kinds of therapeutic approaches, probably because of the important methodological difficulties. This combination however, offers various interesting perspectives: L. ISRAEL examined in two placebo-controlled studies the effects of either 160 mg/d of ginkgo biloba extractum (GBE) or piracetam 2.4 or 4.8 g/d, combined with a memory training program, in nondemented patients complaining of memory problems. The results of both studies suggest that nootropic drug treatment and memory training have each an effect on different cognitive functions and, hence, are complementary. Some functions, like attention/perception in the GBE study and learning in the piracetam study, seem to benefit from both treatments, suggesting a mutually potentiating effect of drug treatment and training. This potentiation is very clear in the treatment of dyslexic children: in a placebo-controlled study piracetam 3.3 g/d, in combination with normal school teaching and more specific logopedic therapy, allowed a normal progression during the full school year in reading accuracy and reading comprehension, while the placebo treated children getting a similar training progressed only with 50%. Recently promising results were obtained in the treatment of dysphasic patients with a combination of speech therapy and piracetam 4.8 g/d, especially when given during the first months after the stroke, or otherwise in combination with an intensive speech training. In both double-blind studies the piracetam treated group improved about 60% more than the group who only got speech therapy and placebo. All these data may be explained by the restorative or enhancing influence of nootropic drugs on neurotransmitter systems closely related to learning and memory functions. E.g. piracetam restores the availability and function of muscarinic and NMDA receptors in aging animals, most probably through a modulation of the psychico-chemical properties of the neuronal membrane such as the membrane fluidity.


Int Psychogeriatr 1994 Fall;6(2):155-70
Drug therapy and memory training programs: a double-blind randomized trial of general practice patients with age-associated memory impairment.


Israel L, Melac M, Milinkevitch D, Dubos G. Grenoble University Hospital, France.

A double-blind randomized trial was performed involving 162 patients with age-associated memory impairment (AAMI) selected and followed by their general practitioners. Two intervention methods--a drug and a cognitive therapy--were assessed in combination. Three randomized parallel groups of 54 patients each, aged 55 years and over, were followed and treated for 3 months. After a placebo wash-out period of 10 days, one group received 2.4 g of piracetam, another group, 4.8g, and the third, a placebo. A total of 135 patients, 45 in each group, completed the study. Combined therapy was most effective in patients whose baseline performance on memory tests was lowest. The best results were observed with 4.8 g of piracetam, especially when training sessions began after 6 weeks of drug treatment. This result was confirmed by the global impression of the principal investigator.


Pharmacopsychiatry 1991 Jul;24(4):121-6
Piracetam in elderly motorists.


Schmidt U, Brendemuhl D, Engels K, Schenk N, Ludemann E. Arbeits- und Forschungsgemeinschaft fur Strassenverkehr und Verkehrssicherheit, University of Cologne, Germany.

101 elderly motorists with reduced reaction capacity were examined under real traffic conditions with regard to their driving ability. They were given a daily dose of 4.8 g piracetam or placebo over a six-week period in a randomised double-blind study. The percentage of correctly solved sign-observance items, which reflects orientation and perception in real traffic conditions, increased in the placebo-treated test-group from 79.86% in the pretest to 80.07% in the retest, whereas the test subjects of the piracetam-treated group improved their performance from 77.08% to 84.16%. After being treated with piracetam for 6 weeks, the drivers showed a significantly better performance than the placebo-group. Of particular interest is the finding that the test-subjects who had scored less than 80% in the pretest improved without exception in the retest after treatment with piracetam.


Acta Neurol (Napoli) 1991 Feb;13(1):1-12
A clinical and neurophysiological trial on nootropic drugs in patients with mental decline.


Gallai V, Mazzotta G, Del Gatto F, Montesi S, Mazzetti A, Dominici P, Della Monica A. Istituto di Clinica Delle Malattie Nervose e Mentali Universita di Perugia, Milano.

The different expressions of mental decline in elderly people, from simple senile benign forgetfulness to SDAT, can be evaluated by psychometric and neurophysiological tests. In the present study, the effects of oxiracetam, Piracetam and placebo were compared in a group of elderly subjects. The results of the trial, structured as single blind, clearly showed that nootropics positively effect both clinical and neurophysiological performances and that oxiracetam produces a more pronounced effect when compared to piracetam. In fact, oxiracetam was found more effective in improving psychometric scales such as GDS (clinical performances) as well as the amplitude and the latency of the P300 (neurophysiological performances), which reflect a functional recovery of the cerebral pathways related to attention and memory.


Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 1985 Jul;4(2):141-55.
Haemorheological pattern in initial mental deterioration: results of a long-term study using piracetam and pentoxifylline.


Parnetti L, Ciuffetti G, Mercuri M, Senin U.

A group of 80 elderly subjects affected with recent onset (less than 6 mth) slight to moderate mental deterioration was observed before and after oral drug treatment for a period of 28 wk. The study consisted of four randomized groups of subjects homogeneous for age, sex and life habits. The first group received a placebo, the second group received piracetam (1600 mg 3 times a day), the third group received pentoxifylline (400 mg 3 times a day), and the fourth group received a combination of piracetam and pentoxifylline. At the beginning and end of each phase of the study, neuropsychological and haemorheological parameters were evaluated in all subjects. The results show that the most evident improvement in psycho-intellectual performance, associated with an increase of whole blood filtration values, was obtained in the group treated with the two-drug combination.


Acta Psychiatr Belg 1983 Jul-Aug;83(4):349-58
Nootropic drugs and aging.


Giurgea CE, Greindl MG, Preat S.

Nootropics are drugs, which ameliorate the functional "plasticity" of the central nervous system. The nootropic drug acts at the telencephalic level through a series of bioenergetic, hemorheological, microcirculatory and neurochemical mechanisms.


Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1983;81(2):100-6.
Piracetam in elderly psychiatric patients with mild diffuse cerebral impairment.


Chouinard G, Annable L, Ross-Chouinard A, Olivier M, Fontaine F.

In a 12-week double-blind study, piracetam at two dose levels (2.4 and 4.8 g/day) was compared to placebo in the treatment of 60 elderly psychiatric patients with mild diffuse cerebral impairment, but no signs of focal brain lesion. The psychiatric illness, schizophrenia or affective disorder, of patients selected was in remission at the time of the study. Monthly evaluations by the nurse revealed that piracetam improved overall functioning, particularly alertness, socialization, and cooperation, relative to the control group. Patients treated with 2.4 g/day piracetam also showed significant improvement in scores for the full IQ and the memory quotient on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence and Memory Scales; greater response was seen in those with lower initial scores. Piracetam at 4.8 g/day had a more rapid onset of action on behavioral variables than 2.4 g/day, but its therapeutic effect tended to diminish at 12 weeks, possibly as the result of overstimulation. Piracetam did not appear to interfere with concomitant psychotropic maintenance medication or affect the psychiatric illness itself.


Arzneimittelforschung 1978;28(9):1529-30
Piracetam and vigilance. A study of EEG changes and clinical effects in gerontopsychiatric patients (author's transl)


Bente D, Glatthaar G, Ulrich G, Lewinsky M.

The electroencephalographic and clinical effects of piracetam were studied in a group of 11 hospitalized gerontopsychiatric patients treated with a daily dosage of 4.8 g for 8--13 months. The EEG was evaluated by power spectral analysis, followed by a principal component analysis of frequency parameters. The statistical analysis of the resulting factor scores shows that piracetam induces significant EEG changes: decrease of slow frequencies, augmentation and acceleration of alpha-activity and increase of beta-activity. These EEG changes, indicating an increase in vigilance, correspond clinically to an improvement of communicative behavior and cognitive functioning.


Acta Psychiatr Scand 1976 Aug;54(2):150-60
Piracetam-induced improvement of mental performance. A controlled study on normally aging individuals.


Mindus P, Cronholm B, Levander SE, Schalling D.

A double-blind, intra-individual cross-over comparison of the mental performance of 18 aging, non-deteriorated individuals during two 4-week periods of piracetam (1-acetamide-2-pyrrolidone) and placebo administration was performed using conventional and computerized perceptual-motor tasks. In a majority of these tasks the subjects did significantly better when on piracetam than on placebo, a finding consistent with ratings completed by two independent observers. The findings indicate new avenues for the treatment of individuals with reduced mental performance possibly related to disturbed alertness--a neglected group of psychiatric conditions.

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LifeMirage
post Mar 05, 2006, 01:11 AM
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Piracetam In Alzheimer's Disease & Dementia


J Int Med Res 2001 Jan-Feb;29(1):28-36
Efficacy of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors versus nootropics in Alzheimer's disease: a retrospective, longitudinal study.


Tsolaki M, Pantazi T, Kazis A. Third Department of Neurology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.

The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of nootropics (piracetam, aniracetam, nimodopine and dihydroergicristine) versus acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChE-Is) (tacrine and donepezil) in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This is a retrospective study of 510 patients with Alzheimer's disease. To determine clinical efficacy of treatment, we used the mean change over time in scores for the following tests: the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); the Cambridge Cognitive Examination for the Elderly; and the Functional Rating Scale for Symptoms of Dementia. In all patients and in patients with severe Alzheimer's disease (baseline MMSE < 11), no significant differences were seen in the neuropsychological test scores between the two treatment groups. In patients with moderate dementia (baseline MMSE between 11 and 20), however, there was a significantly greater deterioration, as shown on the CAMCOG scale, after 12 months' treatment for patients receiving AChE-Is compared with those receiving nootropics (-4.38 for AChE-Is group versus 1.48 for nootropics group). For patients with mild dementia (baseline MMSE score between 21 and 26), there was a significantly greater deterioration on the MMSE scale for each time-point in the nootropics group compared with the AChE-Is group. In conclusion, we did not find any strong evidence that a difference in efficacy exists between AChE-Is and nootropics in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.


Acta Neurol Scand Suppl 2000;176:12-9
A pharmacogenomic approach to Alzheimer's disease.


Cacabelos R, Alvarez A, Fenandez-Novoa L, Lombardi VR. EuroEspes Biomedical Research Center, Institute for CNS Disorders, La Coruna, Spain.

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (susceptibility genetics) and genomic point mutations (mendelian genetics) can be used in Alzheimer's disease (AD) for diagnostic, predictive and therapeutic purposes. Using a matrix genetic model, including APOE, PS1 and PS2 allelic variants, we have studied the distribution of 36 different genotypes in the AD population (N= 479) and the genotype-related cognitive response to a multifactorial therapy in AD patients with mild-to-moderate dementia. The 10 most frequent AD genotypes are the following: 1) E33P112P2 + (17.75%), 2) E33P112P2- (15.55%), 3) E33P111P2+ (10.85%), 4) E34P112P2+ (9.60%), 5) E34P112P2- (7.56%), 6) E33P111P2- (7.10%), 7) E34P111P2+ (4.80%), 8) E33P122P2+ (4.38%), 9) E34P111P2- (4.18%), and 10) E34P122P2+ (3.55%). APOE-4/4-related genotypes represent less than 3% in the following order: E44P112P2 + > E44P111P2+ = E44P111P2- > E44P112P2+ > E44P122P2+ = E44P122P2. Multifactorial therapy with CDP-choline (1,000 mg/day) + piracetam (2,400 mg/day) + anapsos (360 mg/day) did improve mental performance during the first 6-15 months in a genotype-specific fashion. The best responders in the APOE series were patients with APOE-3/4 genotype (r= +0.013), while the worst responders were APOE-4/4 patients (r= -0.93). PS1-related genotypes responded in a similar manner; and patients with a defective PS2 gene exon 5 (PS2+) always showed a poorer therapeutic response than PS2- patients. All these data suggest that the therapeutic outcome in AD exhibits a genotype-specific pattern, and that a pharmacogenomic approach to AD might be a valuable strategy for drug development and monitoring.


J Neural Transm 1999;106(7-8):757-61
Piracetam reverses hippocampal membrane alterations in Alzheimer's disease.


Eckert GP, Cairns NJ, Muller WE. Department of Pharmacology, Biocenter, University of Frankfurt, Federal Republic of Germany.

The in vitro effects of piracetam treatment on the fluidity of membranes from the hippocampus of Alzheimer's Disease patients (AD) and non-demented controls were studied. Hippocampal membranes of AD patients showed a significant lower hydrocarbon core fluidity compared with membranes from elderly non-demented controls. Preincubation with piracetam enhanced the hydrocarbon core fluidity of hippocampal membranes from AD-patients as well as elderly controls in a concentration depending fashion, although the effect was more pronounced for the AD membranes. In the presence of piracetam, the difference of the membrane fluidity between AD and control membranes was not longer apparent.


Neurodegeneration 1995 Dec;4(4):349-56
The pharmacotherapy of Alzheimer's disease based on the cholinergic hypothesis: an update.


Weinstock M. Department of Pharmacology, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical Centre, Jerusalem, Israel.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with impairment of cognitive function and personality. The synaptic loss, neuronal atrophy and degeneration of cholinergic nuclei in the basal forebrain may be associated with a reduction in oxidative metabolism of glucose, a fall in acetyl CoA and ATP. Current pharmacological strategies, aimed at increasing cholinergic activity include acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors, cholinergic agonists, acetylcholine (ACh) releasers and stimulants of nerve growth factors (NGF). AChE inhibitors, physostigmine and Tacrine can slow the decline of cognitive function and memory in some patients with mild or moderate AD, if given for at least 3-6 months in sufficient doses to inhibit brain AChE. Their main disadvantages are low oral bioavailability, peripheral cholinergic hyperactivity and liver toxicity with Tacrine. Newer, less toxic AChE inhibitors, with selective central activity, formulations of physostigmine, selective Ml and nicotinic agonists are becoming available with improved bioavailability and pharmacokinetics. These may increase the likelihood of therapeutic benefit in AD. Nootropic drugs, e.g. Piracetam, which release ACh and are relatively non-toxic could possibly slow the progression of the disease. A combination of an AChE inhibitor, piracetam and a stimulator of NGF may show additive effects on memory processes but with a lower incidence of untoward effects.


Funct Neurol 1993 Sep-Oct;8(5):335-45
Auditory and visual event-related potentials in patients suffering from Alzheimer's dementia and multiinfarct dementia, before and after treatment with piracetam.


Dabic-Jeftic M, Mikula I. University Department for Neurology, Psychiatry, Alcoholism and other Addictions, University Hospital Sestre Milosrdnice, Zagreb, Croatia.

We have done a study on 7 subjects suffering from Alzheimer's dementia (AD) and 15 subjects suffering from multiinfarct dementia (MID) to see whether they manifest any changes of amplitudes or latencies concerning event-related potentials (ERP) compared to a group of normal controls and how three months of treatment with piracetam affects those changes. We found that the latencies of all waves are longer in the groups of subjects suffering from AD and MID compared to the normal controls, except for the N100 wave, which showed shorter latency in the AD group. Amplitudes were lower in the groups of patients suffering from AD and MID. These changes were most prominent for the P300 wave. Treatment with piracetam reduced those changes in the precognitive part, though it seemed to have no effect on the cognitive part.


Neurology 1993 Feb;43(2):301-5
Long-term and high-dose piracetam treatment of Alzheimer's disease
.

Croisile B, Trillet M, Fondarai J, Laurent B, Mauguiere F, Billardon M. Department of Neurology, Hopital Neurologique, Lyon, France.

Preclinical research suggests that piracetam (a nootropic drug) may improve cognitive functions, but previous studies have failed to demonstrate a clear benefit for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We report a 1-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study with a high dose of piracetam (8 g/d per os) in 33 ambulant patients with early probable AD. Thirty subjects completed the 1-year study. No improvement occurred in either group, but our results support the hypothesis that long-term administration of high doses of piracetam might slow the progression of cognitive deterioration in patients with AD. The most significant differences concerned the recall of pictures series and recent incident and remote memory. The drug was well-tolerated.


Int Psychogeriatr 1992 Summer;4(1):25-44
Moving from the question of efficacy to the question of therapeutic relevance: an exploratory reanalysis of a controlled clinical study of 130 inpatients with dementia syndrome taking piracetam.


Herrmann WM, Stephan K. Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Freien Universitat-Berlin, Germany.

The authors reanalyzed previously published data from a prospectively randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase-III study of 130 inpatients with dementia syndrome. The patients in the study had been diagnosed as having suffered from organic brain syndrome (ICD 290), which is the core syndrome of dementia (so-called dementia syndrome) for at least two years. They were treated with piracetam for three months at a dose level of 4,800 mg/d. These data were reexamined in order both to survey the extent of drug-related improvement and response rates when assessed at different levels and to investigate the comparability of efficacy in subgroups suffering from either senile dementia of the Alzheimer type or multi-infarct dementia. Three scales were used for the assessment of efficacy. They were the CGI, or Clinical Global Impression, completed by the physicians; the SCAG, or Sandoz Clinical Assessment Geriatric, used by clinical psychologists; and the BGP, or Beurteilungsskala fur Geriatrische Patienten (Evaluation Scale for Geriatric Patients), employed by the nursing staff. The Syndrome-Kurztest (SKT) and Benton tests served to measure performance. The items and subscores of the SCAG and the SKT were highly intercorrelated at baseline, forming a common factor fairly independent of the information gained by BGP. This suggests that merely using different kinds of information-gathering methods, i.e., clinical scales and performance tests, completed by different groups of observers, does not automatically result in nonredundant comprehensive information. When using the most conservative response criterion of individual improvement, i.e., at least one baseline standard deviation, treatment with piracetam showed statistically significant (pe less than .001) explorative response rates of 50% and above in three out of four target variables, as compared to the 0 to 6% obtained with placebo. CGI was used as descriptive variable. Again, using this response criterion from a separate analysis of diagnostic subgroups, as matched by the median of the patients' Hachinski Ischemic Scale scores, it does not appear that piracetam's efficacy for patients with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT) varies with its efficacy for patients with multi-infarct dementia (MID).


Neurophysiol Clin 1991 Dec;21(5-6):411-23
The significance of quantified EEG in Alzheimer's disease. Changes induced by piracetam


Pierlovisi-Lavaivre M, Michel B, Sebban C, Tesolin B, Chave B, Sambuc R, Melac M, Gastaut JL, Poitrenaud J, Millet Y. Laboratoire d'explorations fonctionnelles du systeme nerveux, CHU Timone, Marseille, France.

One study was performed in 12 patients with presenile Alzheimer's disease (group I), the other one in 16 patients with mild senile dementia of Alzheimer type (group II). In each study, patients were divided into two randomized parallel groups, one receiving placebo, the other piracetam (9 g daily in group I piracetam and 2.4 g daily in group II piracetam) during three months, piracetam induced a decrease in EEG power on the 2-6 Hz range (group I piracetam), 3-5 Hz and 7 Hz (group II piracetam) and an increase of EEG power in the 9-11 Hz range (group I piracetam) and in the 10 Hz and 13 Hz frequencies (group II piracetam). There was also a significant improvement in the Trail Making Test part A in group II piracetam. Correlations between decreased EEG low frequency components and improvement in some psychometric tests were found significant in the two groups. It seems that the main effect of piracetam was to induce increased alertness. The same results were found in both studies; the good reproducibility suggests that EEG spectral analysis is a reliable tool in the assessment of psychotropic drug effects.


J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1988 Aug;8(4):613-7
Effect of piracetam on cerebral glucose metabolism in Alzheimer's disease as measured by positron emission tomography.


Heiss WD, Hebold I, Klinkhammer P, Ziffling P, Szelies B, Pawlik G, Herholz K. Max-Planck-Institut fur neurologische Forschung, Cologne, F.R.G.

The effect of piracetam (a putative enhancer of cerebral metabolism) on regional CMRGlu was studied by positron emission tomography of 2[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose in nine patients with Alzheimer's disease, and in seven cases with multiinfarct dementia or unclassified dementia. In Alzheimer's disease, i.v. administration of piracetam, 6 g b.i.d. for 2 weeks, significantly improved rCMRGlu in most cortical areas, whereas no effect on CMRGlu of the drug was observed in the multiinfarct dementia/unclassified dementia groups. These results lend further support to the notion that adjuvant piracetam treatment is of benefit in Alzheimer's disease. They may also indicate that the typical metabolic depression in Alzheimer's disease is caused by complex interaction of disturbed transmitter and cellular function rather than by a specific deficit in the cholinergic system alone.


Acta Psychiatr Belg 1980 Sep-Oct;80(5):748-54
Acute effect of drugs upon memory of patients with senile dementia.


Delwaide PJ, Devoitille JM, Ylieff M.

Memory has been tested in senile demented patients with the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. The processus of memorization can be significantly facilitated in acute conditions by lysin-vasopressin, to a lesser degree by piracetam and highly worsened by scopolamine. No effect of physostigmine has been observed.

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post Mar 10, 2006, 10:04 AM
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Piracetam In Cardiovascular Disorders

Klin Med (Mosk) 1997;75(1):32-5
Piracetam and tocopherol acetate [Vitamin E] ability to potentiate clinical effect of antianginal drugs in presenile and senile patients with ischemic heart disease (unstable angina)


Pimenov LT, Churshin AD, Ezhov AV. Department of Polyclinic Therapy, State Medical Academy, Izhevsk.

Potentiating ability of piracetam and tocopherol acetate was studied outpatiently in aged patients with ischemic heart disease. It was found that the addition of piracetam and tocopherol acetate to conventional antianginal drug therapy brings higher response and exercise tolerance, contributes to more effective hemodynamic and energetic support of the exercise, to positive changes in the central and peripheral hemodynamics.

Tr Prom Ekol 1995;(10):26-8
Effects of piracetam on occupationally significant functions of patients with arterial hypertension working under conditions of psychoemotional stress.


Dasaeva LA.

The study covered influence of Piracetam on occupationally important functions of memory and attention in hypertensive patients exposed to psychoemotional stress at work. The medicine appeared to improve psychic state, mental performance and the occupationally important function of memory, causing no effects on the attention. Besides hypotensive effect the medicine resulted in better clinical and physiologic parameters and increased physical performance.

Kardiologiia 1992 May;32(5):35-7
Clinical and hemodynamic effect of piracetam (Nootropil) in elderly and very old patients with coronary heart disease in the outpatient rehabilitative period.


Pimenov LT, Kalinina SA, Churshin AD.

The clinical and hemodynamic efficiency of piracetam (nootporil) used in the long-term combined therapy of elderly and senile patients with chronic coronary heart diseases was studied outpatiently. This drug led to a significant enhancement of the antianginal effect of the basic treatment, to more regression of clinical signs of chronic circulatory insufficiency, to positive central hemodynamic changes, higher exercise tolerance, lower energy consumption index per performance unit, increased adaptive potential of the circulatory system, and maintained optimal cerebral blood flow.

Klin Med (Mosk) 1989 May;67(5):36-8
Experience using nootropil [Piracetam] in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease.


Shubina TI, Zaitsev VP.

Course nootropil treatment was conducted in 34 IHD patients with neurotic and neurotic-like diseases. Dynamic changes in the psychic state were assessed by the clinical scale and the MMPI psychological test. Significant improvement or normalization of the psychic state was achieved in 58.8% of the patients treated with nootropil. The best results were obtained in the treatment of asthenic states. Administration of nootropil had no influence on the incidence of angina pectoris attacks and produced no side effects.

Kardiologiia 1987 Feb;27(2):46-50
Therapeutic use of piracetam in myocardial infarct patients


Leshchinskii LA, Pimenov LT, Fedorov VS.

54 patients with acute myocardial infarction were evaluated repeatedly, with 28 of those treated with piracetam, and 26 used as controls. Piracetam produced a considerable favorable effect on the clinical course of myocardial infarction, as reflected in a more rapid clinical improvement of acute circulatory insufficiency and an analgetic effect. The drug reduced heart rate and moderately elevated systolic arterial blood pressure. Positive changes in total CPK, LDH, AST and ALT activities, and in ECG from 12 and 35 leads were quicker to come.
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post Mar 10, 2006, 10:07 AM
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Piracetam In Cerebral Palsy

S Afr Med J 1978 Jun 3;53(22):889-91
Piracetam in the management of spasticity in cerebral palsy.


Maritz NG, Muller FO, Pompe van Meerdervoort HF.

This article is a preliminary report of a new indication for the drug piracetam (Nootropil; UCB). It was found that piracetam was useful for the control of spasticity in 8 out of 16 patients with cerebral palsy. Side-effects were minimal.


Arq Neuropsiquiatr 1976 Jun;34(2):167-72
Pyrrolidine acetamide as an auxiliary drug in the treatment of cerebral palsy


Chagas Ribeiro FS, Silva P, Boas Doria ML, de Oliveira Lima A, Prates Campos M, Novaes Ferreira A, Rocha Santos MJ, Avila RL, da Silva Martins I.

20 children, with the diagnosis of cerebral palsy (CP) and under classical, physiotherapeutical and pedagogical, treatment, received piracetam (pyrrolidine acetamide) as an auxiliary drug. The goal was to better spasticity, learning and nervous instability problems aiming at better results of over-all treatment of CP. The group that received the drug has been compared to a control group of 20 children treated by the customary treatment only. The comparison showed favourable results for the medicated group. The drug was administered in the dose of 80 mg/kg/day during 10 weeks. The criteria for evaluation have been psychological, clinical, physiotherapeutical and pedagogical. The drug has been given in a new form of presentation: 6% solution for oral use.
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LifeMirage
post Mar 10, 2006, 10:25 AM
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Piracetam In CerebralVascular Disorders


Neurol Neurochir Pol 1981 Jul-Aug;15(4):447-51
Comparative evaluation of psychoactive drugs used in patients with subacute and chronic cerebrovascular disorders


Wasilewski R, Lebiediewa N, Kozlowa E, Wolkow W.

The report is based on 315 patients with subacute and chronic cerebral circulatory disturbances caused mostly by atherosclerosis aged 30 to 82 years, treated for 1-6 months. In 90 cases Piracetam (Nootropil) was given, 107 received Piritinol (Encephabol, Enerbol), 77 Piriditol, 41 Centrophenoxin. The patients were allocated randomly to these groups. In the treated patients improvement was achieved in a considerable proportion of cases (44-82%) treated with different drugs. This improvement manifested itself as regression or decreased intensity of neurotic complaints, labyrinthine-cerebellar signs, pyramidal signs, anxiety and fears, improvement of recent memory, attention, psychomotor activity. The best results were obtained with Nootropil, moderately good with Centrophenoxin, Encephabol, and poor with Piriditol. Drug tolerance was best with Encephabol, while that of other drugs was slightly worse. The only disquieting symptoms were activation of epileptic seizures in several patients treated with Nootropil or Centrophenoxin. The best way of administration was giving the drugs in two doses in the morning hours and at noon. The authors regard as useful the treatment of patients with subacute and chronic cerebral circulatory failure with psychoenergizing drugs.


Neurol Neurochir Pol 1980;14(2):177-82
Effectiveness of parenteral administration of piracetam in acute and chronic consciousness disorders in cerebral arteriosclerosis


Sobczyk W.

The effectiveness of treatment with piracetam of 32 patients with acute and chronic consciousness disturbances caused by clinical syndromes of cerebrovascular disease (strokes, syndromes of dementia) was studied. The drug was administered in drip infusions in daily doses of 6 g for 10 days. A statistically significant improvement was obtained in the signs belonging to the syndrome of consciousness disturbances. No significant difference was observed in the power of action of the drug in acute and chronic consciousness disturbances.


Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 1989;89(12):19-23
Significance of subjective symptoms and diagnostic criteria in initial forms of cerebral circulation insufficiency


Eninia GI, Purinia IV, Robule VKh, Maiore IKh, Timofeeva TN, Berzina AIa.

Piracetam was applied to the treatment of 60 patients with initial manifestations of brain circulation failure and stage I circulatory encephalopathy. The drug exerted a beneficial therapeutic effect by reducing high brain vascular resistance (both extra- and intracranial) and by increasing the lowered volume of pulse fluctuations. It made fibrinolytic blood activity and aggregation of formed elements of the blood return to normal. An appreciable antiatherogenic effect was discovered as well. It should be taken into consideration that in patients with a dramatic lowering of pulse fluctuations, the use of piracetam in a dose of 1.6 g/day may enhance headache. In such cases the dose should be reduced.


Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1983;81(2):100-6
Piracetam in elderly psychiatric patients with mild diffuse cerebral impairment.


Chouinard G, Annable L, Ross-Chouinard A, Olivier M, Fontaine F.

In a 12-week double-blind study, piracetam at two dose levels (2.4 and 4.8 g/day) was compared to placebo in the treatment of 60 elderly psychiatric patients with mild diffuse cerebral impairment, but no signs of focal brain lesion. The psychiatric illness, schizophrenia or affective disorder, of patients selected was in remission at the time of the study. Monthly evaluations by the nurse revealed that piracetam improved overall functioning, particularly alertness, socialization, and cooperation, relative to the control group. Patients treated with 2.4 g/day piracetam also showed significant improvement in scores for the full IQ and the memory quotient on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence and Memory Scales; greater response was seen in those with lower initial scores. Piracetam at 4.8 g/day had a more rapid onset of action on behavioral variables than 2.4 g/day, but its therapeutic effect tended to diminish at 12 weeks, possibly as the result of overstimulation. Piracetam did not appear to interfere with concomitant psychotropic maintenance medication or affect the psychiatric illness itself.
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post Mar 17, 2006, 08:11 AM
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Piracetam In Dyslexia

J Clin Psychopharmacol 1987 Aug;7(4):230-7
Piracetam and dyslexia: effects on reading tests.


Wilsher CR, Bennett D, Chase CH, Conners CK, DiIanni M, Feagans L, Hanvik LJ, Helfgott E, Koplewicz H, Overby P, et al.

Previous research has suggested that dyslexics treated with piracetam have shown improvements in reading skills, verbal memory and verbal conceptualizing ability, feature analysis, and processing of letter-like stimuli. Two hundred twenty-five dyslexic children between the ages of 7 years 6 months and 12 years 11 months whose reading skills were significantly below their intellectual capacity were enrolled in a multicenter, 36-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Children of below average intelligence, with abnormal findings on audiologic, ophthalmologic, neurologic, psychiatric, and physical examinations, who were emotionally disturbed or educationally deprived and who had recently been treated with psychoactive medication were excluded from the trial. Piracetam was well tolerated, with no serious adverse clinical or laboratory effects reported. Piracetam-treated children showed significant improvements in reading ability (Gray Oral Reading Test) and reading comprehension (Gilmore Oral Reading Test). Treatment effects were evident after 12 weeks and were sustained for the total period (36 weeks).


Int J Psychophysiol 1986 May;4(1):53-61
The effect of piracetam on short- and long-term verbal retrieval in dyslexic boys.


Helfgott E, Rudel RG, Kairam R.

Studies of 60 dyslexic boys age 8-14, carefully selected for exclusion of intellectual, sensory, psychiatric and neurological impairment and educational deprivation, were conducted to determine the efficacy of Piracetam, over a 12-week period, in improving reading and other related skills. There were no changes at the end of 12 weeks to distinguish the groups in accuracy or comprehension of prose-reading. Short-term memory gains, however, were recorded for the treated group on two different tests, digit span, and a test (Neimark) of immediate and delayed recall. The mean digit span scaled score for the entire group was one S.D. below their mean IQ. Considering only the performance of children whose digit span scaled scores were one S.D. or below the mean (7 or less), the treated group made a significant gain at the end of 12 weeks. On the Neimark test the treated group was significantly superior to the untreated group on first trial learning and they also lost significantly fewer object names after a delay. Improved retrieval from long-term storage could be demonstrated for the treated group on the rapid automatized naming test. Although there was no significant difference between the group at screening, the treated group was significantly faster on letter naming at the end of the drug trial. The treated group also improved their single word reading on the WRAT.


Int J Psychophysiol 1986 May;4(1):41-52
Evaluation of the efficacy of piracetam in treating information processing, reading and writing disorders in dyslexic children.


Tallal P, Chase C, Russell G, Schmitt RL.

Piracetam, a new class of drug (nootropil) thought to enhance specific cognitive skills, was given in a 3300 mg daily dose to half of a group of fifty-five dyslexic boys aged 8-13 years, in a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The other half of the subjects received placebo. All subjects met the following criteria: normal intelligence, normal educational opportunities, no severe emotional problems, no neurological handicaps, good physical health, not taking other psychotropic medication, and scoring at least one and one half years below their mental age equivalent on the Gilmore Oral Reading Test. Non-verbal (auditory and visual) and verbal perceptual, and memory skills were examined, and reading, spelling, language and writing abilities were measured using standardized instruments. Compared to the placebo control group, individuals treated with Piracetam did not show statistically significant improvements above their baseline scores on measures of perception, memory, language, reading accuracy or comprehension, or writing accuracy. However, reading speed and numbers of words written in a timed period were significantly enhanced in subjects treated with Piracetam as compared to placebo. Effective reading and writing ability, taking both rate and accuracy into consideration, were also significantly improved in the Piracetam as compared to the placebo treatment group. The medication was well-tolerated and medical examinations showed no significant adverse reactions. These results encourage further study of Piracetam to determine more precisely the mechanism of action by which specific cognitive skills are affected.


J Clin Psychopharmacol 1985 Oct;5(5):272-8
The effects of piracetam in children with dyslexia.


Di Ianni M, Wilsher CR, Blank MS, Conners CK, Chase CH, Funkenstein HH, Helfgott E, Holmes JM, Lougee L, Maletta GJ, et al.

Following previous research which suggests that piracetam improves performance on tasks associated with the left hemisphere, a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of developmental dyslexics was conducted. Six study sites treated 257 dyslexic boys between the ages of 8 and 13 years who were significantly below their potential in reading performance. Children were of at least normal intelligence, had normal findings on audiologic, ophthalmologic, neurologic, and physical examination, and were neither educationally deprived nor emotionally disturbed. Piracetam was found to be well tolerated in this study population. Children treated with piracetam showed improvements in reading speed. No other effects on reading were observed. In addition, improvement in auditory sequential short-term memory was observed in those piracetam-treated patients who showed relatively poor memory at baseline. It is suggested that longer term treatment with piracetam may result in additional improvements.


Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1979 Sep;65(1):107-9
Piracetam as an aid to learning in dyslexia. Preliminary report.


Wilsher C, Atkins G, Manfield P.

Sixteen male dyslexic children were seen again when adults and matched with 14 student volunteers for a 21-day trial of piracetam. It was found, using a double-blind cross-over technique, that dyslexics significantly increased their verbal learning by 15.0% and students by 8.6% (over and above their placebo increase).

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post Mar 17, 2006, 08:13 AM
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Piracetam In Head Injuries

Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2003 Jul-Aug;66(4):6-8.

Effect of Piracetam on the color discriminative function of retina in patients with craniocerebral trauma.

Ovanesov KB, Shikina IB, Arushanian EB, Shchurovskaia IIu. Department of Pharmacology, State Medical Academy, ul. Mira 310, Stavropol, 355024 Russia.

The chronic administration of piracetam over a period of four weeks in patients after heavy craniocerebral traumas significantly improves the color discrimination of retina with respect to all four colors studied. It is suggested that the improved functioning is related to the nootrope effect upon the GABAergic processes both in the retina and in the related cerebral structures.


Neurol Neurochir Pol 1998 Sep-Oct;32(5):1189-97
Piracetam in severe cranio-cerebral injuries


Goscinski I, Sliwonik S, Sondej T, Kwiatkowski S, Moskala M, Cichonski J, Wegrzyn D, Uhl H. Kliniki Neurotraumatologii Instytutu Neurologii Collegium Medicum UJ.

A group of 100 patients treated immediately following a cranio-cerebral injury was analyzed. The patients, administered piracetam either in an intravenous infusion (GCS 3-8) or orally (GCS above 9), were divided into groups depending on the dose and clinical status. Piracetam participates in the activity of the majority of neurotransmitters, increases glucose and oxygen consumption in the ischaemic nervous tissue and increases blood flow through cerebral terminal vessels. In cranio-cerebral injuries, piracetam is employed to achieve cytoprotection and improve cerebral blood flow. In patients with neurological deterioration following the administration of 6-10 mg/day, no good results were obtained. A dose of 24-30 mg/day had a significant positive effect on therapeutic results providing certain conditions were met, such as ensuring proper partial oxygen pressure (oxygen therapy) and proper blood glucose levels. The use of piracetam is justified immediately after an injury; after the discharge oral piracetam therapy is recommended.


Przegl Lek 1999;56(2):119-20
Clinical observations concerning piracetam treatment of patients after craniocerebral injury


Goscinski I, Moskala M, Cichonski J, Polak J, Krupa M, Sliwonik S, Sondej T. Kliniki Neurotraumatologii Instytutu Neurologii Collegium Medicum Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego w Krakowie.

Piracetam (Nootropil) is a cytoprotective to brain tissue and improving cerebral blood flow medicine. In the Department of Neurotraumatology we investigated results of piracetam treatment in a group of 100 succeeding patients admitted between 1995-96 due to craniocerebral injury. High doses (24-30 g per day) of this medicine have a positive effect on final result of treatment, when treatment is initiated immediately after the injury and described conditions are abided. We also showed usefulness of piracetam treatment in posthospital management.


Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 1988;88(5):42-8
Effect of piracetam on the functional activity of the brain in patients with craniocerebral injuries


Sharova EV, Potapov AA, Kulikov MA.

Repetitive EEG spectral analysis in 32 patients after severe of mild head trauma revealed two types of responses to Piracetam evidencing the ambiguity of its effect on unspecific activating brain structures. Besides the brain cortex, the hypothalamo-thalamic system was found to participate in the response. With epileptoid signs present in the EEG, the drug could reduce the seizure threshold.


Eur Neurol 1978;17(1):50-5
Piracetam in the treatment of post-concussional syndrome. A double-blind study.


Hakkarainen H, Hakamies L.

The effect of piracetam, a cyclical derivative of GABA, was compared with that of a placebo in a double-blind study of 60 patients with post-concussional syndrome of 2-12 months' duration. The daily dose of piracetam was 4,800 mg. After 8 weeks of treatment piracetam significantly reduced the occurrence and severity of the following symptoms: vertigo, headache, tiredness, decreased alertness, increased sweating and neurasthenic symptoms. No significant effect was observed on the following symptoms: tremor, orthostatic symptoms, and memory disorders. Side effect were reported by 64% of the patients under piracetam and by 32% under placebo. In the author's opinion, piracetam seems to be a promising new drug for the treatment of post-concussional syndrome.


Lancet 1977 Nov 26;2(8048):1110-1
Effect of piracetam on level of consciousness after neurosurgery.


Richardson AE, Bereen FJ.

2-oxopyrollidine acetamide (piracetam) is said to protect the cerebral cortex against hypoxia. Since surgery is believed to aggravate cerebral hypoxia and the consequent neurological dysfunction, patients undergoing surgery for brain tumors or ruptured cerebral aneurysms were studied. A random, non-stratified study of 100 patients showed that a significantly higher percentage of patients receiving piracetam attain or maintain a normal or near-normal level of consciousness postoperatively than those receiving a placebo. No side-effects or interaction of piracetam with other medications were noted.


Acta Anaesthesiol Belg 1975 Apr;26(1):51-60
Clinical trial of piracetam in disorders of consciousness due to head injury.


Calliauw L, Marchau M.

The authors first remind some toxicological and some pharmacological properties of piracetam (Nootropil), then present the results of a test giving evidence of the presence of this drug in the cerebrospinal fluid after intravenous administration to man. In a double blind study, the activity of piracetam is tested on 31 patients suffering from coma after head injury. Only 27 patients without intracranial space occupying lesions are taken into account. Methods and results are described. Piracetam, although showing no activity on mortality, improves the level of consciousness.

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post Mar 17, 2006, 08:20 AM
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Piracetam In Healthy People

Clin Neurophysiol 2001 Feb;112(2):275-9
Piracetam affects facilitatory I-wave interaction in the human motor cortex.


Wischer S, Paulus W, Sommer M, Tergau F. Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Goettingen, Robert-Koch-Strasse 40, D-37075, Goettingen, Germany.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) the effect of a single oral dose of the GABA derivate piracetam on intracortical facilitatory I-wave interaction. METHODS: The study was performed in 8 healthy volunteers. Before, 1, 3, 6, and 24 h after intake of 4000 mg piracetam, MEPs in the relaxed abductor digiti minimi muscle were elicited by a recently introduced double pulse TMS technique with a suprathreshold first and a subthreshold second stimulus. From interstimulus intervals of 0.5-5.1 ms 3 periods were observed in which MEP facilitation showed maxima - so-called peaks of I-wave interaction - and which were separated by two troughs with no facilitation. We studied the changes in timing and size of the peaks over time. RESULTS: With piracetam, I-wave peaks showed a reduction in size as well as a shortening of the latencies at which the peaks occurred. Both changes were significant at 6 h after drug intake compared to baseline. The effects were partially reversible after 24 h. CONCLUSIONS: The mode of action of piracetam within the nervous system is almost unknown. The peak size reduction was similar to effects that were seen under GABAergic drugs, although GABAergic properties of piracetam have not been observed so far. Shortening of the I-wave peak latencies is a new phenomenon. The results are discussed on the basis of the known therapeutic effects of piracetam in cortical myoclonus and as nootropic agent.


Int J Psychophysiol 1999 Oct;34(1):81-7
Single-dose piracetam effects on global complexity measures of human spontaneous multichannel EEG.


Kondakor I, Michel CM, Wackermann J, Koenig T, Tanaka H, Peuvot J, Lehmann D. The KEY Institute for Brain-Mind Research, University Hospital of Psychiatry, Zurich, Switzerland.

Global complexity of 47-channel resting electroencephalogram (EEG) of healthy young volunteers was studied after intake of a single dose of a nootropic drug (piracetam, Nootropil UCB Pharma) in 12 healthy volunteers. Four treatment levels were used: 2.4, 4.8, 9.6 g piracetam and placebo. Brain electric activity was assessed through Global Dimensional Complexity and Global Omega-Complexity as quantitative measures of the complexity of the trajectory of multichannel EEG in state space. After oral ingestion (1-1.5 h), both measures showed significant decreases from placebo to 2.4 g piracetam. In addition, Global Dimensional Complexity showed a significant return to placebo values at 9.6 g piracetam. The results indicate that a single dose of piracetam dose-dependently affects the spontaneous EEG in normal volunteers, showing effects at the lowest treatment level. The decreased EEG complexity is interpreted as increased cooperativity of brain functional processes.


Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1993 Mar;86(3):193-8
Global dimensional complexity of multi-channel EEG indicates change of human brain functional state after a single dose of a nootropic drug.


Wackermann J, Lehmann D, Dvorak I, Michel CM. Department of Neurology, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland.

Viewing the multi-channel EEG as a sequence of momentary field maps corresponds to the concept of a trajectory in K-dimensional state space (K = number of channels). This approach permits a quantitative, single value measure of complexity of the brain state trajectory, the global correlation dimension that describes the ensemble characteristics of all recorded channels. In 5 normal volunteers, 4 records of 16-channel resting EEG were obtained during each of 4 randomized sessions (double blind design) after a single dose of placebo or 2.9 g or 4.8 g or 9.6 g piracetam. The global correlation dimension of a 40 sec epoch from each record was estimated, using 50 computational runs with 8192 point pairs. The results were combined for the two intermediate doses and averaged over repeated records. The dimensionality decreased from placebo (median = 5.89) to low dose (median = 5.72) to high dose (median = 5.59), significant in a Friedman ANOVA at P < 0.02, with significant differences between placebo vs. high and low vs. high dose. Thus, the subtle change of brain global functional state after a single dose of piracetam is reflected by the non-linear measure of global dimensional complexity of the multi-channel EEG.


Neuropsychobiology 1993;28(4):212-21
Single doses of piracetam affect 42-channel event-related potential microstate maps in a cognitive paradigm.


Michel CM, Lehmann D. Department of Neurology, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland.

We examined whether a single administration of piracetam produces dose-dependent effects on brain functions in healthy young men. In 6 subjects, 42-channel event-related EEG potential maps (ERP) were recorded during a task requiring subjects to watch single digits presented in a pseudorandom order on a screen and to press a button after all triplets of three consecutive odd or even digits. The ERP maps to the three digits of the correctly detected triplets were analyzed in terms of their mapped ERP field configuration (landscape). Different landscapes of the maps indicate different configuration of the activated neural population and therefore reflect different functional microstates of the brain. In order to identify these microstates, adaptive segmentation of the map series based on their landscapes was done. Nineteen time segments were found. These segments were tested for direct effects on brain function of three single doses of piracetam (2.9, 4.8 or 9.6 g) and a placebo given double-blind in balanced order. Piracetam mainly affected the map landscape of the time segments following the triplet's last digit. U-shaped dose-dependent effects were found; they were strongest after 4.8 g piracetam. Since these particular ERP segments are recognized to be strongly correlated to cognitive functions, the present findings suggest that single medium doses of piracetam selectively activate differently located or oriented neurons during cognitive steps of information processing.


Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1976 Sep 29;49(3):307-9
Increase in the power of human memory in normal man through the use of drugs.


Dimond SJ, Brouwers EM.

Nootropyl (Piracetam) a drug reported to facilitate learning in animals was tested for its effect on man by administering it to normal volunteers. The subjects were given 3x4 capsules at 400 mg per day, in a double blind study. Each subject learned series of words presented as stimuli upon a memory drum. No effects were observed after 7 days but after 14 days verbal learning had significantly increased.


Acta Psychiatr Scand 1976 Aug;54(2):150-60
Piracetam-induced improvement of mental performance. A controlled study on normally aging individuals.


Mindus P, Cronholm B, Levander SE, Schalling D.

A double-blind, intra-individual cross-over comparison of the mental performance of 18 aging, non-deteriorated individuals during two 4-week periods of piracetam (1-acetamide-2-pyrrolidone) and placebo administration was performed using conventional and computerized perceptual-motor tasks. In a majority of these tasks the subjects did significantly better when on piracetam than on placebo, a finding consistent with ratings completed by two independent observers. The findings indicate new avenues for the treatment of individuals with reduced mental performance possibly related to disturbed alertness--a neglected group of psychiatric conditions.


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post May 17, 2011, 05:23 AM
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BION I'm imepressd! Cool post!
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Piracetam has been used for decades as an off label nootropic agent. It has been observed to be effective in increasing: cognition and memory, learning, focus and reaction times but these results seem to vary.

http://empoweredlabs.com/
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