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> Psychedelic Research around the World
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post Mar 30, 2003, 12:58 PM
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Psychedelic Research around the World


MDMA
MDE
Ayahuasca  DMT
Ibogaine
Ketamine
LSD
Mescaline
Peyote
Psilocybin
Salvia
divinorum  
Multi-drug studies  
Cross-cultural and Meta-analysis studies  


 



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[Study name, Investigators(s), Site, Sponsor(s), E-mail, References, URLs]
With a few exceptions, only studies in which psychedelics are actually administered to humans subjects are included in the following list of projects. Studies in which psychedelic drug users are compared to control groups are generally not included. Animal studies are not included. For comprehensive bibliographies of past psychedelic research, including all therapeutic studies as well as other human and animal studies, see our bibliography section.

MDMA - In progress

See also the MDMA Research Page for more links.

Effects of MDMA ("Ecstasy") on the Human Brain
Investigators: Franz Vollenweider, PhD, Alex Gamma, PhD
Psychiatric University Hospital - Zürich, Switzerland
E-mail: vollen@bli.unizh.ch, Sponsors: Swiss National Science Foundation, UBS Science Foundation
Psychobiologic studies including: assessment of possible neurophysiological, psychological and cognitive alterations in chronic MDMA users; evaluation of the role of serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine systems in mediating the effect of MDMA on mood, psychomotor behavior and sensorimotor gating in humans, investigating whether regular MDMA users show alterations in 5-HT reuptake site densities indicative of neurotoxic effects after long-term MDMA use. MAPS donated $6,000 to a sub-study in which 10 MDMA-naive subjects will receive a PET scan to measure serotonin reuptake sites before and after a single dose of MDMA (1.5-1.7mg/kg)
Last updated June 18, 2001


For details see the MDMA Research in Switzerland Page (MAPS website)


Serotonin and Dopamine system interactions in the reinforcing properties of psychostimulants
Investigators: Manny Tancer, MD and Charles Schuster, PhD
Wayne State University - Detroit, Michigan, USA
E-mail: mtancer@med.wayne.edu
Sponsor: NIDA
Psychobiologic studies approved and in process. MDMA dose-response phase underway. The first paper about this research was published in December, 2001. References: Tancer ME, Johanson CE. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2001 Dec 1;65(1):97-101.
Last updated March 5, 2003


Serotonin and dopamine system interactions in the reinforcing properties of psychostimulants. MAPS - Volume 7, Number 3; Summer 1997.
Tancer ME, Johanson CE. The subjective effects of MDMA and mCPP in moderate MDMA users. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2001 Dec 1;65(1):97-101.


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MDMA - Under development
See also the MDMA Research Page for more links.

MDMA Psychotherapy in the Treatment of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder — Spain Study
Investigators: Pedro Sopelana Rodriguez, psychiatrist at the Psychiatric Hospital of Madrid (Hospital Psiquiatrico de Madrid); Jose Carlos Bouso Saiz, Ph.D. candidate
U. de Autonoma de Madrid, Spain
E-mail: jcbouso@correo.cop.es
Sponsor: MAPS A pilot dose-finding study with the purpose of gathering information to be used to help select the dose for a subsequent study of therapeutic efficacy. The project is the first formal therapy study with MDMA ever conducted. Six of the 29 subjects have now been treated. We have completed treating the patients in the 50 mgs dose group (3 patients received 50 mgs and 1 received a placebo), and have treated two people in the 75 mg dose group (5 patients will receive 75 mgs and 2 will receive a placebo). Unfortunately, in response to positive reports about the study that appeared in the Spanish media, the Madrid Anti-Drug Authority pressured the hospital into withdrawing permission for the study. The Ministry of Health has not withdrawn permission, so there is a chance that the study can be resumed, though probably not before we obtain permission to start the US MDMA/PTSD study. This is yet another classic case of police authorities suppressing scientific research that threatens to contradict government propaganda about the dangers of MDMA. See current update, protocol and the informed consent form.
Last updated March 10, 2003

MDMA-assisted Psychotherapy in the Treatment of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Investigators: Michael Mithoefer, MD
Location: Charleston, South Carolina
Sponsor: MAPS
E-mail: mmit@bellsouth.net
The protocol was approved by FDA on November 2, 2001. The protocol was modified in June 2002 when FDA approved the move of the location of the treatment sessions to Dr. Mithoefer's office. In July 2003, the Western IRB approved the protocol, only to revoke approval in September 2002 as a result of internal pressure. In response to an appeal by MAPS, which included 12 letters of support for the protocol from scientists around the world, the Western IRB refused to review the underlying scientific data, decided the study was too controversial, withdrew from the review and returned all fees paid by MAPS. A new IRB is now reviewing the protocol. [See MDMA page]

MAPS needs to raise $300,000 for this study. MAPS has received restricted donations of $75,000 from John Gilmore, $7,800 from Anja Saunders, $58,000 from the Joe Barnhart Foundation, $510 from the Holland Fund, $20,000 from an anonymous donor and $35,000 from the Overbrook Foundation. We are now seeking the remaining $103,890. [See the MDMA Clinical Plan (114K)].
Last updated March 10, 2003

MDMA Dose Response Safety Study in Cancer Patients
Investigators: Charles S. Grob, MD, Russell E. Poland, PhD, Rowan Chlebowski, MD, PhD
Harbor-UCLA Medical Center - Torrance, California, USA
Sponsor: MAPS
E-mail: Charles Grob - grob@humc.edu, Russell Poland - grob@humc.edu
Proposed MDMA dose-response safety study in cancer patients, in preparation for psychotherapy studies. The FDA has indicated a willingness in principle for a study investigating the use of MDMA in cancer patients. However, Dr. Grob has decided to move forward with psilocybin instead of MDMA in cancer patients. MAPS will resume efforts to start research with MDMA in terminal patients once MAPS' MDMA/PTSD study is underway. Details and references, 1995 version of the protocol, view video
Last updated February 11, 2003


MDMA study in cancer patients (planned)
Investigators: John Halpern MD, Harvard Medical School and McClean Hospital, Belmont MA?
E-mail: john_halpern@hms.harvard.edu
Funding: MAPS, ?
Study of MDMA safety and use as treatment for anxiety and pain in cancer patients. This study is currently under development and will commence in one and a half to two years.
Last updated March 10, 2003

MDMA-assisted Psychotherapy in the Treatment of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Location: Israel
Sponsor: MAPS
This study is presently inactive - efforts to resume this project will commence after MAPS has obtained both FDA AND IRB approval of the PTSD study directed by Michael Mithoefer, M.D., in South Carolina (USA). Encouraging discussions about the study with Israeli Ministry of Health officials took place in November, 2002.
Read about the 1999 Israel MDMA Conference
Last updated February 11, 2003



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MDMA - Completed
Psychobiologic Effects of MDMA in Humans
Investigators: Charles S. Grob, MD, and Russell E. Poland, PhD
Harbor-UCLA Medical Center - Torrance, California, USA
Sponsor: MAPS, Harbor/UCLA
E-mail: Charles Grob - grob@humc.edu, Russell Poland - poland@humc.edu
FDA-approved Phase 1 dose-response safety study .25 to 2.25 mg/kg, dose administration phase completed, data for .25 to .75 mg/kg published. Details and references, view video.
Last updated February 13, 2001


Tancer ME, Johanson CE. The subjective effects of MDMA and mCPP in moderate MDMA users. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2001 Dec 1;65(1):97-101.
MDMA Pharmacokinetics in Humans
Investigators: John Mendelson, MD and Reese Jones, MD
UC San Francisco - California, USA
Contact person: Matthew Baggott, mbagg@itsa.ucsf.edu
Sponsor: NIDA
Drug administration phase completed, eight subjects were given 0.5 and 1.5 mg/kg MDMA HCl. A paper from it is in press at Annals of Internal Medicine. Data was presented at two conferences.
Last updated September 18, 2000


See also Research in Germany.
See the MDMA Research Page for more links.

Clinical pharmacology of the interaction between alcohol and MDMA
Investigators: Jordi Camí, MD, Magi Farré, MD, et al.
Institut Municipal d'Investigacio Medica - Barcelona, Spain
E-mail: mFarre@imim.es
Sponsor: funded in part by several government grants
Psychobiologic study looking at the interaction of MDMA (100 mg) and alcohol (.8 g/kg). Analysis nearly completed, papers being written. see current update.
Last updated September 14, 2000


Mood state and brain electric activity in Ecstasy users
Investigators: Alex Gamma, PhD, Edi Frei, Dietrich Lehmann (1), Roberto D. Pascual-Marqui (1), Daniel Hell and Franz Vollenweider, MD
Research Unit and (1) The KEY Institute for Brain-Mind Research, University Hospital of Psychiatry, Zürich
Sponsors/Funding: Swiss National Science Foundation; Swiss Federal Health Office; Heffter; MAPS.
E-mail: gamma@bli.unizh.ch
References: Neuroreport (2000) 11 (1): 157-162. Download PDF
Last updated February 9, 2000

Gender Differences in the Subjective Effects of MDMA
Investigators: Liechti ME, Gamma A, Vollenweider, FX
Sponsors/Funding: Swiss National Science Foundation; Swiss Federal Health Office; Heffter Research Institute
References: Psychopharmacology DOI (2001) 10.1007/s002130000648
Last updated February 16, 2001

Effects of MDMA (Ecstasy) on Prepulse Inhibition and Habituation of Startle in Humans After Pretreatment with Citalopram, Halperidol, or Ketanserin
Investigators: Liechti ME, Geyer MA, Hell D, Vollenweider FX
Sonsors/Funding: Swiss National Science Foundation; Swiss Federal Health Office; Heffter Research Institute
References: Neuropsychopharmacology (2001) 24:240-252
Last updated February 16, 2001

MDMA and Memory
Investigators: Karen Bolla, PhD et al.
Johns Hopkins University - Baltimore, Maryland
Sponsor: NIH
Neuropsychological memory testing of MDMA users and controls.
Last updated April 9, 1999


Alex Gamma - MDMA and Memory

Acute effects of 3, 4 - methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "Ecstasy") on cerebral blood flow (CBF), brain electric activity (EEG), prepulse inhibition (PPI), psychological state and neuropsychological performance in healthy subjects
Investigators: Alex Gamma, PhD, Franz Vollenweider, MD
Psychiatric University Hospital - Zürich, Switzerland
Sponsor: UBS Science Foundation and others
E-mail: gamma@bli.unizh.ch, vollen@bli.unizh.ch
Aim: an integrative characterization of MDMA in terms of its acute neurophysiological, psychological and cognitive effects in healthy, MDMA-naive human subjects. Subjects were given a single oral dose of MDMA (1.7 mg/kg). References and details
Last updated January 18, 2000

Pharmacological Effects of MDMA in Humans
Investigator: Jordi Camí, MD, Magi Farré, MD, et al.
Institut Municipal d'Investigacio Medica - Barcelona, Spain
E-mail: jCami@imim.es
Sponsor: funded in part by several government grants
Studies include: Quantification of MDMA and its metabolites in plasma and urine by gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection; Human pharmacology of MDMA, Psychomotor performance and subjective effects. List of published papers
Last updated January 24, 2000

Low-dose MDMA ("Ecstasy") induces vasopressin secretion
Investigator: John Henry, MD
University College London, England
Contact person: Valerie Curran, v.curran@ucl.ac.uk
This was a neurotoxicity study. Henry is directing additional MDMA studies at this time.
Last updated January 14, 2000

Fallon JK, Kicman AT, Henry JA, Milligan PJ, Cowan DA, Hutt AJ.
Stereospecific analysis and enantiomeric disposition of 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Ecstasy) in humans.
Clin Chem 1999 Jul;45(7):1058-69.
Henry JA, Fallon JK, Kicman AT, Hutt AJ, Cowan DA, Forsling M
Low-dose MDMA ("ecstasy") induces vasopressin secretion.
Lancet 1998 Jun 13;351(9118):1784.
Psychobiologic Effects of MDMA in Humans
Investigators: Charles S. Grob, MD, and Russell E. Poland, PhD
Harbor-UCLA Medical Center - Torrance, California, USA
Sponsor: MAPS, Harbor/UCLA
E-mail: Charles Grob; grob@humc.edu, Russell Poland; poland@humc.edu
FDA-approved Phase 1 dose-response safety study .25 to 2.25 mg/kg, dose administration phase completed, data for .25 to .75 mg/kg published. Data for 1.00 to 2.25 mg/kg being analysed for publication. Details and references, view video
Last updated January 19, 2000

MDMA Pharmacokinetics
Investigator: Rudolf Brenneisen, PhD
University of Bern, Switzerland
E-mail: brenneisen@dkf5.unibe.ch
Completed and published, just a few subjects. References and details
Last updated April 9, 1999

Psycholytic Therapy with MDMA and LSD in Switzerland
Investigators: Marianne Bloch, MD, Jurai Styk, MD and Dr. Samuel Widmer, MD
Sponsor: Swiss Medical Society for Psycholytic Therapy
From 1988 to 1993 therapists with the Swiss Medical Society for Psycholytic Therapy worked with MDMA and LSD as adjuncts to psychotherapy. The findings from this study were published in the MAPS Bulletin, Winter 1994- 95. Drs. Juraj and Sonja Styk discussed this work at the 1999 MAPS MDMA symposium in Israel. Read their talk, view video
Last updated January 14, 2000

MDMA (Ecstasy): Does It Play A Causal Role In Nephropathy? A Review John Podraza, Department of Biological Sciences, Hartwick College, New York

MDMA Neurotoxicity Study
Investigators: Una McCann, MD, George Ricaurte, MD, PhD
Johns Hopkins University - Baltimore, Maryland
E-mail: gricaurt@welchlink.welch.jhu.edu
Sponsor: NIH
PET scan study, MDMA Neurotoxicity, MDMA Users vs. Control Group.
Last updated April 9, 1999

MAPS Commentary on this study
MDMA Neurotoxicity Study Page from Erowid Entheogen Vaults



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MDE - Completed
See also Research in Germany
Differential Cognitive and Brain Activation Effects of the Isomers of MDE
Investigators: Dr. Spitzer, et al.
University of Ulm, Germany
E-mail: manfred.spitzer@medizin.uni-ulm.de
This study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of the cognitive and brain activation effects of the isomers of MDE. The researchers concluded "The so-called entactogenic effects of MDE are likely to be caused by the (S)-enantiomer, whereas ®-MDE appears to be responsible for neurotoxic effect."
Last updated January 29, 2002

Spitzer M, Franke B, Walter H, Buechler J, Wunderlich AP, Schwab M, Kovar KA, Hermle L, Gron G. Enantio-selective cognitive and brain activation effects of N-ethyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine in humans. Neuropharmacology 2001 Aug;41(2):263-71.
The Psychological, Neuroendocrine, Cardiovascular and Sleep-EEG Effects of MDE
Investigators: Euphrosyne Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, MD et al.
Aachen, Germany
Sponsor: DFG (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft = German Research Foundation)
Human research on neurobiological and subjective effects of MDE. References and details
Last updated February 22, 2000



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AYAHUASCA - In progress
A Pharmacological Study of Ayahuasca in Healthy Volunteers
Investigators: Manel Barbanoj, MD, PhD and Jordi Riba
Institute de Recerca, Hospital de Sant Pau - Barcelona, Spain
Sponsor: Institut de Reserca, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau (HSCSP)
E-mail: jriba@hsp.santpau.es
Initial pilot study and sensorimotor gating study completed - see below. A double-blind brain-imaging study using SPECT to study regional cerebral blood flow after ayahuasca administration has been fully approved and is now in progress. These studies are seeking additional information on mechanisms of action underlying the central effects of ayahuasca. Update, Summer 2000
Last updated March 5, 2003


"A Pharmacological Study of Ayahuasca in Healthy Volunteers" - Jordi Riba and Manuel J. Barbanoj, M.D., Ph.D., MAPS Bulletin, Vol. 8 No. 3, Autumn 1998
Ayahuasca in the Treatment of Substance Abuse
Investigators: Jacques Mabit, Jaime Torres, Rosa Giove, Javier Zavala, Olga Celis
Takiwasi Center - Tarapoto, Peru
E-mail: takiwasi@terra.com.pe
Website: www.takiwasi.com
Sponsors: Self-financed, funding sought from the French government, European Union, and United Nations
Takiwasi has been doing research with substance abuse treatment for several years.
Last updated March 5, 2003

"Blending Traditions - Using Indigenous Medicinal Knowledge to Treat Drug Addiction" - Jacques Mabit, M.D., MAPS Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 2, Summer 2002. [PDF version]
"Ayahuasca and Shamanism in Addiction Therapy" - Michel Mabit, MAPS Bulletin, Vol. 6 No. 3, Summer 1996
"The Takiwasi Patient's Journey" - Michel Mabit, MAPS Bulletin, Vol. 6 No. 3., Summer 1996


A Study of Uniao do Vegetal (UDV) Adolescents
Investigators: Charles Grob, MD, Ailonso Luiza, Claudia Miranda,
Glacus de Souza Brito, MD and Marlene de Rios
Sao Paulo, Brazil
E-mail: grob@humc.edu
Sponsor: Heffter
Testing and evaluation of adolescents who have used ayahuasca and matched controls have been completed. Data review now in process.
Last updated March 5, 2003



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AYAHUASCA - Under development
Pharmacological Study of Ayahuasca in Healthy Humans
Investigators: Manel Barbanoj, MD, PhD and Jordi Riba
Institute de Recerca, Hospital de Sant Pau - Barcelona, Spain
Sponsor: Institut de Reserca, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau (HSCSP), partial funding from Spanish government.
E-mail: jriba@hsp.santpau.es
A repeated dose study and a neurochemical mechanism study designed to evaluate the capacity of 5HT1A agonists and 5HT2A antagonists to block the effects of ayahuasca will both be conducted soon. These studies are also included as part of the program of research including a SPECT study of regional blood flow after ayahuasca that is already in progress.
Last updated March 5, 2003



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AYAHUASCA - Completed

EEG of Long-Term Ayahuasca Drinkers vs. Matched Controls
Investigators: Dr. Micheal Hessellink (Holland), Yatra da Silveira Barbosa (Brazil), Dr. Erik Hofmann (Denmark). Co-investigators are: Dr. Glacos Brito and Dr. Dartiu Xavier da Silveira both from Brazil.
Sao Paulo, Brazil
E-mail: ehoffmann@vip.cybercity.dk
The protocol has been completed and an article reporting on the results is published in the MAPS Bulletin, Spring 2001.
Last updated March 5, 2003

Hoffmann E, Hesselink JMK, da Silveira-Barbosa YWM. Effects of a Psychedelic, Tropical Tea, Ayahuasca, on the Electroencephalographic (EEG) Activity of the Human Brain During a Shamanistic Ritual. MAPS Bulletin 2001 Spring;11(1):25-31. [PDF version]
Pharmacological Study of Ayahuasca in Healthy Volunteers
Investigators: Manel Barbanoj, MD, PhD and Jordi Riba
Institute de Recerca, Hospital de Sant Pau - Barcelona, Spain
Sponsor: Institut de Reserca, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau (HSCSP)
E-mail: jriba@hsp.santpau.es
Psychobiologic study: Initial pilot study completed, including published report of subjective effects in 6 volunteers. Also completed are an 18-subject study of effects of ayahuasca on sensorimotor gating, including EEG measures.
Last updated March 5, 2003

Riba, J et al. (2001) Subjective Effects and tolerability of the South American psychoactive beverage Ayahuasca in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology (2001) 154:85-95.
Riba J, Rodriguez-Fornells A, Barbanoj M (2002) Effects of ayahuasca on sensory and sensorimotor gating in humans as measured by P50 suppression and prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex, respectively. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 165: 18-28
Riba J, Anderer P, Morte A, Urbano G, Jane F, Saletu B, Barbanoj M (2002) Topographic pharmaco-EEG mapping of the effects of the South American psychoactive beverage ayahuasca in healthy volunteers. Brit J Clin Pharmacol 53: 613-628
Yritia M, Riba J, Ortuno J, Ramirez A, Castillo A, Alfaro Y, de la Torre R, & Barbanoj MJ(2002): Determination of N,N-dimethyltryptamine and beta-carboline alkaloids in human plasma following oral administration of Ayahuasca Journal of Chromatography B 779:271-281
"A Pharmacological Study of Ayahuasca in Healthy Volunteers" - MAPS Bulletin, Vol. 8 No. 3, Autumn 1998
Investigations on the Human Psychopharmacology of Ayahuasca: Phase I
Investigators: Dennis J. McKenna, PhD and Charles S. Grob, MD and Jace Callaway, PhD
E-mail: DJMcKenna@aol.com, grob@humc.edu, callaway@jolla.uku.fi
Sponsor: Botanical Dimensions, Heffter, MAPS
Psychobiologic study, completed and published, follow-up studies possible.
Last updated March 5, 2003


"Blending Traditions - Using Indigenous Medicinal Knowledge to Treat Drug Addiction" - Jacques Mabit, M.D., MAPS Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 2, Summer 2002. [PDF version]
"Jungle Pilgrims: North Americans Participating in Amazon Ayahuasca Ceremonies" - Kim Kristensen
References and links to additional articles

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DMT - Completed
Human Psychopharmacology of N,N-dimethyltryptamine
Investigator: Rick Strassman, MD
University of New Mexico, USA
E-mail: rstrassm@islandnet.com
Sponsor: NIDA
Psychobiological study, finished and published.
Last updated April 9, 1999

MAPS - Volume 6 Number 1 Autumn 1995
University of New Mexico Update




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IBOGAINE - In progress
Ibogaine treatment study with addiction
Investigator: Deborah Mash, PhD
St. Kitt, Virgin Islands
E-mail: dmash@mednet.med.miami.edu
Sponsor: Healing Visions Institute for Addiction Recovery, Ltd.

Last updated June 18, 2001

Mash, D.C., Kovera, C.A. Pablo, J., Tyndale, R. F., Ervin, F.D., Williams, I.C., Singleton, E.G., and Mayor, M.
Ibogaine: Complex Pharmacokinetics, Concerns for Safety, and Preliminary Efficacy. Neurobiological Mechansisms of Drugs of Abuse, Annals New York Acad. Sci. Vol. 94: 394-401, 2000.
Mash DC, Kovera CA, Buck BE, Norenberg MD, Shapshak P, Hearn WL, Sanchez-Ramos J, (1998)
Medication Development of Ibogaine as a Pharmacotherapy for Drug Dependence, Annals NY Acad Sci, v 844 pp 274-292.


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IBOGAINE - Under development
Safety studies in preparation for proposed study of ibogaine therapy in the treatment of cocaine addiction
Investigators: William Weiner, MD, PhD and Deborah Mash, PhD
Unversity of Miami Medical School - Florida, USA
E-mail: dmash@mednet.med.miami.edu
Clinical study Phase I, continuation of dose response study which stopped at 2 mg/kg, approved for 4, 6 and 8 mg/kg, cannot begin until funding of about $500,000 is secured. No funding in sight. view video
Last updated June 18, 2001



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IBOGAINE - Completed
There is additional information about ibogaine research at www.ibogaine.org

Safety studies in preparation for proposed study of ibogaine therapy
in the treatment of cocaine addiction
Investigators: Juan Sanchez-Ramos, MD, PhD and Deborah Mash, PhD
Unversity of Miami Medical School - Florida, USA
E-mail: dmash@mednet.med.miami.edu
Sponsor: University of Miami, MAPS
Clinical study Phase I begun (up to 2 mg/kg), funding ceased, published. view video
Last updated May 5, 2000

MAPS - Volume 6 Number 3 Summer 1996
Phase 1 Clinical Trial of Ibogaine in Human Patient Volunteers




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KETAMINE - In progress
Ketamine Psychedelic Therapy In The Treatment of Heroin Addiction
Single vs. Multiple doses
Investigator: Evgeny Krupitsky, MD, PhD
St. Petersburg, Russia
Email: kru@lond.spb.su
Sponsor: MAPS, Heffter
In this subsequent study, sixty patients will be given 3 therapy sessions with ketamine, while another sixty patients will be given 3 therapy sessions, one with ketamine and two without ketamine. MAPS and Heffter Research Institute have jointly agreed to donate $9,450 each for five years to this study. MAPS has already donated $9600 for the first year expenses, and $9900 for the second year. About 50 patients have already been treated.
Research Protocol for Single vs. Multiple Dose Study
Last updated January 30, 2002

Ketamine Research in Russia Page (MAPS)

Krupitsky E, Burakov, A, Romanova, T, Dunaevsky, I, Strassman, R, Grinenko A (2002). Ketamine psychotherapy for heroin addiction: immediate effects and two-year follow-up. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 23, 273-283



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KETAMINE - Completed
Ketamine Psychedelic Therapy in the Treatment of Heroin Addiction
Investigator: Evgeny Krupitsky, MD, PhD
St. Petersburg, Russia
E-mail: kru@lond.spb.su
Sponsor: MAPS, Heffter
Clinical study, drug administration phase completed, 70 patients treated (35 in the experimental and 35 in the control group). The study is finished, the researchers published the six-month follow-up paper in MAPS. The one-year follow-up analysis has been completed. Two year follow-up data has been analyzed and submitted for publication and is currently in the midst of the peer review process. Results are promising.
Research Protocol for the Therapeutic dose vs. Low Dose Placebo study
Last updated January 30, 2002

Experiments in Altered Perception of 3-D Visual Illusions as a Screening Method for Psychedelic Activity Using Ketamine
Investigators: Torsten Passie, MD; Udo Schneider MD and Hinderk Emrich, MD
Hannover, Germany
Sponsor: MAPS, Dept. of Psychiatry Hannover Medical School
Clinical experiment with ketamine to establish a paradigm to use visual 3-D illusions as screening instruments for detecting psychedelic activity in humans below the subjective threshold of experience. Paper in press at Journal of Psychopharmacology.
Last updated March 25, 2002

Antidepressant effects of ketamine in depressed patients
Investigators: Berman RM, Cappiello A, Anand A, Oren DA, Heninger GR, Charney DS, Krystal JH
Abraham Ribicoff Center Clinical Neuroscience Research Unit of theConnecticut Mental Health Center, New Haven 06519, USA
Seven subjects with major depression completed 2 test days that involved intravenous treatment with ketamine hydrochloride (.5 mg/kg) or saline solutions under randomized, double-blind conditions. RESULTS: Subjects with depression evidenced significant improvement indepressive symptoms within 72 hours after ketamine but not placebo infusion. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a potential role for NMDA receptor-modulating drugs in the treatment of depression. Reference: Biol Psychiatry 2000 Feb 15;47(4):351-4.
Last updated April 12, 2000

Psychedelic effects of ketamine in healthy volunteers: relationship to steady-state plasma concentrations
Investigators: Bowdle TA, Radant AD, Cowley DS, Kharasch ED, Strassman RJ, Roy- Byrne PP
Department of Psychiatry, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington, Seattle
E-mail: bowdle@u.washington.edu
Ketamine or saline was administered in a single-blinded crossover protocol to 10 psychiatrically healthy volunteers. Hallucinogen rating scale scores were similar to those found in a previous study with psychedelic doses of DMT. Synopsis of paper in Anesthesiology (1998)
Last updated November 3, 1999

Ketamine Psychedelic Therapy in the Treatment of Alcoholics
Investigator: Evgeny Krupitsky, MD, PhD
St. Petersburg, Russia
E-mail: kru@lond.spb.su
Sponsor: Leningrad Regional Center for Alcoholism and Drug Addiction Therapy, MAPS
Ten years of clinical studies completed and published.
Last updated April 9, 1999

Krupitsky E.M., Grinenko A.Y.
Ketamine psychedelic therapy (KPT): a review of the results of ten years of research.
Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 1997, Vol. 29, N.2, pp.165-183.
Ketamine Research in Russia Page (MAPS)



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LSD - Under development
LSD-Assisted Psychotherapy in the Treatment of Cancer Patients
Investigators: Albert A. Kurland, MD, Richard Yensen, PhD, and Donna A. Dryer, MD
Orenda Institute, Baltimore, Maryland
E-mail: ryensen@orenda.org
Sponsor: Orenda Institute, MAPS
Psychotherapy study designed to study the use of LSD-assisted psychotherapy in the treatment of depression and anxiety in cancer patients. The protocol was submitted to FDA on July 20, 2001. On August 22, 2001, FDA placed the protocol on Clinical Hold, requesting quite a few changes in the protocol design along with additional background information about prior LSD psychotherapy research. In mid-October 2001, in order to gather requested data for submission to FDA, MAPS staffer Brandy Doyle assisted Richard Yensen and Donna Dryer in reviewing the files of cancer patients treated with LSD in the late 1960s and early 1970s. No date has yet been set for the resubmission of a revised protocol to FDA.
Last updated December 24, 2001.

"B.C.'s Acid Flashback" - R.C., Vancouver Sun

Receptor Profiles of Lysergamides related to LSD
Investigator: David E. Nichols, PhD
Purdue University - West Lafayette, IN
E-mail: drdave@pharmacy.purdue.edu
Sponsor: Heffter, Promind
Laboratory research, no human or animal subjects. It is well known that the nature of the amide function of lysergamides is critical to conferring activity and high potency onto these molecules. The N,N-diethylamide (LSD) is unique among all the known amides, both for the qualitative aspects of its effects and for its extremely high potency. Thisproject will evaluate a series of lysergamides of varying amide structureusing radioligand competition studies at cloned human brain neurotransmitterreceptors expressed in cell lines. An attempt will be made to identify inthese data the possible reasons for the high degree of variability inactivity of the various amides. That is, is there a specific subset of receptors to which LSD binds that less potent lysergamides do not?
Last updated June 18, 2001



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LSD - Completed
Since the discovery of the psychoactive effects of LSD in 1943, over 1000 papers have been published on a huge range of effects of LSD in humans and animals. See the Psychedelic Bibliography for more on these studies.

Follow-up study of Bastiaans LSD therapy
Investigators: Nicole Maalste, Hans Ossebaard
Utrecht, Netherlands
E-mail: n.maalste@fss.uu.nl
Sponsor: MAPS, Promind Foundation
Retrospective survey study with former clients who were treated with drug therapy by Dr. Jan Bastiaans. Data collection and analysis for pilot study completed. Funding sought for further research. Final Report: Summer 1999, Progress Report: Winter 1999, Winter 2001.
Last updated March 25, 2002

Follow-up study of Janiger LSD research
Investigators: Rick Doblin, Jerry Beck, PhD, Kate Obata, Maureen Alioto
Los Angeles Area, California
E-mail: info@maps.org
Sponsor: MAPS
Retrospective survey study with 45 people who participated in the LSD research of Dr. Oscar Janiger between 1954 and 1962. The Janiger LSD Follow-up Study was published by MAPS.
Last updated May 9, 1999

A Critical Review of Theories and Research Concerning
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) and Mental Health
Investigator: David Abrahart
Department of Mental Health Studies - University of Portsmouth, UK
E-mail: Dave@abrahart.freeserve.co.uk
A critical research literature review concerning LSD and mental health. In particular it concentrates on flashbacks, precipitated psychoses and therapeutic uses. Read it
Last updated August 25, 1999

Psycholytic Therapy with MDMA and LSD in Switzerland
Zürich, Switzerland
Investigators: Marianne Bloch, MD, Jurai Styk, MD and Dr. Samuel Widmer, MD
Sponsor: Swiss Medical Society for Psycholytic Therapy
From 1988 to 1993 therapists with the Swiss Medical Society for Psycholytic Therapy worked with MDMA and LSD as adjuncts to psychotherapy. The findings from this study were published in the MAPS Bulletin, Winter 1994- 95. Drs. Juraj and Sonja Styk discussed this work at the 1999 MAPS MDMA symposium in Israel. Read their talk, view video
Last updated January 14, 2000

A Critical Review of Theories and Research Concerning LSD and Mental Health
David Abrahart

Psychedelic-Assisted Psychotherapy for the Terminally Ill
Bruce Sewick



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MESCALINE - In progress
Mescaline in Healthy Volunteers
Investigator: Dr. Roy Mathew
Duke University Medical School, Durham NC, USA
Sponsor: NIDA
Mescaline and PET scans in healthy normal psychedelic-experienced subjects.
Last updated February 7, 2002

"Tracing the Synapses of Our Spirituality", S. Vedantam, 17 July 2001, Washington Post. Features an interview with Dr. Mathew.
"Time" -- by Dr. Roy Mathew. MAPS - Volume 11, Number 2. Fall 2001.



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MESCALINE - Completed
Blood flow and cerebral laterality in the mescaline model of psychosis
Investigators: Hermle L, Gouzoulis-Mayfrank E, Spitzer M
Department of Psychiatry, Christophsbad, Goppingen, Germany.
Abstract of published paper
Last updated February 22, 2000





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PEYOTE - In progress
Peyote Neuropsychological Study
Investigator: John Halpern, MD, Harrison Pope, MD
Harvard Medical School - Cambridge, Massachussetts
E-mail: jhalpern@warren.med.harvard.edu
Sponsor: Heffter, NIDA, Harvard Medical School, MAPS
Investigators have begun neuropsychological testing with Native American Church members. Pilot data has been analysed. MAPS donated $10,000 towards this study in May, 2001.
Last updated Febrary 7, 2002

MAPS Bulletin -- Volume 11, Number 2 Fall 2001. "Research at Harvard Medical School" -- by Dr. John Halpern
"Interview with John Halpern" -- by Valerie M.



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PSILOCYBIN - In progress
Psilocybin: Basic Dose-Response Safety Studies
Investigator: Franz Vollenweider
University of Zurich, Switzerland
E-mail: vollen@bli.unizh.ch
Sponsor: Heffter
Dr. Vollenweider's team will have finished a series of basic research studies into the dose-response relationship by the end of March 2002. They hope to complete about 4-6 papers about the safety of psilocybin by the end of 2002.
Last updated January 29, 2002

Psilocybin in the Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Investigator: Francisco Moreno, MD
University of Arizona, Tucson, USA
E-mail: fmoreno@u.arizona.edu
Sponsor: Heffter/MAPS
This is the first FDA-approved study in more than 25 years to examine the use of psilocybin in a patient population. The principal investigators plan to study the use of psilocybin in 10 patients suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). They want to determine if they can replicate in a clinical study several published case reports of patients whose OCD symptoms were reduced after self- experimentation with psilocybin mushrooms. MAPS has paid $12,250 for the synthesis of one gram of psilocybin. Analytical data on this psilocybin has been submitted to FDA in March, 2001, with approval obtained from the FDA on May 9, 2001. DEA licenses received July 2, 2001. First patient was treated on November 27, 2001; two subjects have been treated thus far. Current news on this study, Study Protocol, Informed Consent Form
Last updated August 6, 2002


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PSILOCYBIN - Under development
Experimental Studies in the Effects of Psilocybin on Binocular Depth Inversion, Binocular Rivalry, Neuropsychology and Synaesthesias
Investigators: Torsten Passie M.D., M.A.; J¾rgen Seifert M.D., Udo Schneider M.D., Hinderk M. Emrich M.D., Ph.D. Medical School Hannover, Dept. of Clinical Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Hannover, Germany
E-mail: dr.passie@gmx.de
Sponsor: MAPS/Medical School Hannover, Dept. of Clinical Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
This is a study in 12 healthy physicians with medium doses of psilocybin examining effects of psilocybin on different neuropsychological measures, perceptual changes and some subjective effects. The study is double-blind and placebo-controlled (active placebo). The process of permission is completed and the study is fully approved. MAPS has donated $3,000 for the purchase of 250 milligrams of psilocybin, insurance, and other expenses. The first subject is expected to be enrolled in the study by June 2002.
Last updated March 25, 2002



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PSILOCYBIN - Completed
The Concord Prison Experiment Experiment Follow-Up
Investigator: Rick Doblin, Ph.D.
E-mail: rick@maps.org
This study, originally published in the Journal of Psychoactive Drugs [Oct-Dec 1998] is one in a series of long-term follow-ups to early psychedelic research that MAPS has sponsored. The original 1961-63 Harvard study lead by Dr. Timothy Leary investigated the utility of psilocybin in reducing rates of recidivism for prisoners.
Article from MAPS Bulletin
Leary Riedlinger Report
Last updated Jan 3, 2000

The Good Friday Experiment Follow-Up
Investigator: Rick Doblin, Ph.D.
E-mail: rick@maps.org
This study, originally published in the Journal of Transpersonal Psychology [1991 Vol 23(1)] is one in a series of long-term follow-ups to early psychedelic research that MAPS has sponsored. The original 1962 Harvard study lead by Walter Pahnke investigated the utility of psilocybin in triggering a mystical experience.
Article in the Schaffer Library of Drug Policy
Last updated Jan 3, 2000


Psilocybin's effects on cognition
Investigator: Manfred Spitzer, MD, PhD et al.
Psychiatrische Universitats Klinic, Heidelberg, Germany
Human clinical study, completed and published. More psilocybin research in Germany
Last updated April 9, 1999


Spitzer M, et al. (1996)
Increased activation of indirect semantic associations under psilocybin. Biol Psychiatry. 1996 Jun 15;39(12):1055-7.
Psilocybin's effects on cognition: Recent research and its implications for enhancing creativity -- MAPS Bulletin, Volume 7, Number 1 Winter 1996/97

Human Psychopharmacology of Psilocybin
Investigator: Rick Strassman, MD
University of New Mexico, USA
E-mail: rstrassm@islandnet.com
Psychobiological study. Phase 1 dose-response study
Sponsor: NIDA
Begun, not completed due to personal reasons unrelated to study itself.
Last updated April 9, 1999

University of New Mexico Update -- MAPS Bulletin, Volume 6, Number 1 Autumn 1995



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SALVIA DIVINORUM - In progress
Meditation with Salvia Divinorum/Salvinorin A
Investigators: Ian Soutar, Rick Strassman, M.D.
E-mail: soutar@horizon.bc.ca
Sponsor: MAPS
This project evaluates Salvia divinorum as a tool for enhancing meditation work. Buddhist, Quaker, Sufi and other meditation techniques are used by participants in this double blind evaluation of group meditation combined with low doses of Salvia divinorum. One third of the subjects will receive a placebo, one third will receive a very low dose and one third will receive a low dose.
MAPS has purchased the materials and paid for the chemical analysis. Continuing assistance is being offered at no charge, in the spirit of amateur research, by MAPS (professional) members. Thanks to all who are currently contributing their knowledge to this project.
Details on this study.
Last updated June 18, 2001




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Ongoing Clinical Research - Multi-drug studies
Differential Effects of Hallucinogens, Entactogens, and Psychostimulants
Investigators: Euphrosyne Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, MD and Mark Geyer, PhD
Aachen, Germany and UC San Diego - La Jolla, California
E-mail: mark@rat.ucsd.edu
Sponsor: Heffter
A study with healthy volunteers with two different hallucinogens and placebo in a double- blind, cross-over design. The aim of thestudy is to compare the effects of a classic tryptamine hallucinogen onpsychosis-like psychopathology and measures of early information processing tothe effects of an NMDA-antagonist. References and details
Last updated February 22, 2000


Receptor Mechanisms Contributing to Psychedelic Drug Effects
Investigators: Franz Vollenweider, MD and Mark Geyer, PhD
Psychiatric University Hospital - Zürich, Switzerland and UC San Diego - La Jolla, California
E-mail: vollen@bli.unizh.ch, mark@rat.ucsd.edu
Sponsor: Heffter
Last updated April 9, 1999




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Cross-cultural and Meta-analysis Studies - In Progress
A Biochemical Bridge to the Embodied Psyche:
LSD Research 1945-1965 (doctoral dissertation)
Investigator: Kim Hewitt
Department of American Civilization, University of Texas at Austin
E-mail: khewitt@mail.utexas.edu
Sponsors: MAPS
Exploration of how psychedelics helped facilitate a shift in American ideas about mind- body interaction. In 1999 the investigator traveled to the American Medical Archives in Chicago, and the Rockefeller Institute Archives in Tarrytown, New York to do research for this project, and presented part of her research on LSD at St. Lawrence University in Canton, New York for a series called "Visions the Plants Gave Us." Part of my dissertation will be published in an anthology called "The Politics of Healing," to be published in 2002. My essay addresses how psychedelic therapy changed individuals and the cultural mindset during the 1950's-60's. It is entitled "Solvents of Conceptual Sludge: Psychedelic Therapy Confronting the Cold War Mindset." Read about this study in the MAPS Bulletin
Last updated May 24, 2001


Insight, Integration and Implementation: The Personal Psychospiritual
Uses of Entheogens by Mental Health Professionals (doctoral dissertation)
Investigator: Sean House
University of Idaho, Counselor Education
E-mail: phobophobia@turbonet.com
Qualitative study of the processes by which entheogen use becomes therapeutic. Explores how insights become implemented in daily living. Development of a grounded theory outlining the therapeutic process. Participants all have training in one of the mental health professions.
Last updated February 23, 2000


Northwest Amazonian Ayahuasca Shamanism and Near-Death Experience
Investigator: Marcus Lumby, PhD candidate
E-mail: jeff.simmons@virgin.net
Sponsorship: includes small grant from MAPS
Anthropological investigation, first phase completed. Read Field Reports and MAPS article.
Last updated June 8, 2000

The Role of Bwiti in West Africans' Psychospiritual, Social,
Ecological, Ancestral, and Cosmological Relationships (doctoral dissertation)
Investigator: Larry Roussel
California Institute of Integral Studies, East-West Psychology
Sponsor: 1998 Kranzke Scholarship
Comparison of the religious use of iboga among the Bwiti with the ritual use of plants in other syncretic religions such as the Native American Church and the Santo Daime Church of Brazil which also use plant entheogens as an integral part of their ceremonies.
Last updated April 9, 1999


Procedural Variables Needed to Achieve Therapeutic Gains
Through the Use of Psychedelics
Investigator: Brad Watkins
California Institute of Integral Studies, Integral Counseling Psychology Program
Sponsor: 1998 Kranzke Scholarship
Analysis of published research studies in which psychedelics were used to treat neurosis and addiction, and will analyze the treatment procedures to discover the relationship between procedural variables and their outcomes.
Last updated April 9, 1999


The Use of Calea Zacatechichi in the Induction of Lucid
Dreams and Enhancement or Alteration of the Lucid Dream State (doctoral dissertation)
California Institute of Integral Studies, Clinical Psychology
Investigator: David Stuckey
Sponsor: 1998 Kranzke Scholarship
Last updated April 9, 1999


Guided, Structured, Group Use of Entheogenic Substances in Western Culture (doctoral dissertation)
Investigator: Roger Marsden
California Institute of Integral Studies, Clinical Psychology
E-mail: rogerm@ciis.edu
Sponsors: 1998 Kranzke Scholarship; MAPS
What are the different frameworks being employed by entheogenic guides? How are these frameworks different from those used in the research of the 1960s? How do the variations in present day frameworks appear to affect the outcome? Regardless of one's individual assumption of the value of psychedelic work, it is happening in a variety of contexts across the planet. The investigator has completed all interviews in 3 guided, structured entheogen/psychedelic groups. Data anaysis is complete (10 central themes extracted for the basis of discussion, i.e., preparation, integration, relationship of participants to guide, role of relationship of participants to each other, description of the actual sessions, relationship of the work to drug abuse issues, etc.) Read about this study in the MAPS Bulletin
Last updated January 19, 2000




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Cross-cultural and Meta-analysis Studies - Completed
Yes, Mom Took Acid: The Sociohistorical Influence of Prior Psychedelic Drug Use (doctoral dissertation)
Investigator: Mariavittoria Mangini, M.S. PhD
Laytonville, California
E-mail: hmt@itsa.ucsf.edu
Qualitative study, using focused interviews to obtain narrative data. Data also considered: published contemporary and historic discourses about psychedelic drug use, accounts of the interactions of psychedelic drug users with their social environment; and representations of the psychedelic experience in art, music, film and the electronic media.
Mangini was one of fifty scholars nationwide awarded the American Dissertation Fellowship by the American Association of University Women for the 1999-2000 academic year, a heartening acknowledgement of the relevance of this topic.
Last updated April 11, 2001

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Magic truffles/shrooms can now be used for cancer patients to help them relax and less distressed about their disease? I have read some articles from trufflemagic/blog/psilocybin-psilocin-effects-magic-truffles-shrooms/ that psilocybin which is a major component of magic truffles can help ease anxiety and depression. So what is magic truffles anyway? Is it legal? Well the drug is clearly not for everyone, but further studies are on-going for it's medical purpose. I would really want to hear your stand regarding magic truffles. Thanks
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